EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH

The European Journal of Environment and Public Health (EJEPH) is a biannual academic journal that covers a broad spectrum of topics that are relevant to Public Health Sciences.

As a multidisciplinary scholarly journal, the European Journal of Environment and Public Health has an editorial board of highly qualified experts from many disciplines, who have been appointed to guide the journal's evolution and to adequately represent the breadth of the fields encompassed by the Public Health Sciences.

There is no submission fee for the European Journal of Environment and Public Health. You may expect rapid peer-review and publication of your manuscript as long as the academic standards are met.

European Journal of Environment and Public Health is supported by Tsinghua University and published by Veritas Publications Ltd., UK.

CURRENT ISSUE

Volume 6, Issue 2, 2022

Research Article
Increasing the Awareness of Health Risks from Lead-Contaminated Game Meat Among International and National Human Health Organizations
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(2), em0110, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12043
ABSTRACT: Lead bullets and gunshot frequently fragment on impact in game animals and the resulting lead particles are bioavailable. Dietary exposure to this lead source can present health risks to vulnerable groups including young children and frequent consumers such as hunters, subsistence indigenous communities, and recipients of game meat from food banks. Many of the frequent game meat consumers in the European Union (EU) are likely to be drawn from the 13.8 million people, including 1.1 million young children, belonging to hunters’ households. It is estimated that 10 million people are potentially at risk in the USA. National food and health advisories and regulatory considerations appear confined to Europe. Despite the European Commission requesting restrictions on lead ammunition, the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN (FAO), the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and individual countries have not adequately recognized this lead source nor developed mitigation measures. In contrast, several agreements administered by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), have well-developed risk reduction strategies for lead ammunition exposure of wildlife. These agencies could play a leadership role, stimulating appropriate international accords and national regulatory changes requiring the use of non-lead ammunition. Establishing a maximum allowable level of lead in game meat under FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius and EU Regulation 1881/2006, and harmonizing inter-agency human and environmental health approaches would be an important start.
Research Article
Sea Level Rise and City-Level Climate Action
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(2), em0111, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12046
ABSTRACT: Background: Climate change is the greatest threat to global health in the 21st century. Rising sea levels are one particularly concerning manifestation of this and many of the world’s largest cities are vulnerable to sea level rise (SLR). Thus, urban climate adaptation and mitigation policies are increasingly important to protect population health.
Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether being at risk of SLR was associated with city-level climate action. It also aimed to assess the wider drivers of climate action in cities, in order to guide ongoing efforts to motivate climate action, assess public health preparedness and identify research gaps.
Methods: This is an ecological cross-sectional study using secondary data from CDP, the Urban Climate Change Research Network (UCCRN), World Bank, United Nations Cities and EM-DAT (Emergency Events Database). The study population consisted of 517 cities who participated in CDP’s 2019 Cities Survey. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to assess the relationship between risk of SLR and city-level climate action, and secondly, to assess the wider determinants of city-level climate action.
Results: There was evidence of crude associations between risk of SLR and three outcome variables representing city-level climate action. However, after adjusting for confounding variables, these crude associations disappeared. World region, national income status and urban population were shown to be stronger predictors of city-level climate action.
Conclusion: It is concerning for population health that there is no association demonstrated between risk of SLR and climate action. This could indicate a lack of awareness of the risks posed by SLR within urban governance. To fulfil their health protection responsibilities, it is essential that public health professionals take a leading role in advocating for climate action.
Research Article
Evaluation of the Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Use of Food Supplements in Individuals Aged 18 and Over
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(2), em0112, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12066
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Worldwide, the COVID-19 epidemic remains a serious as an important health problem. Vitamins, minerals, probiotics, and other products that we know as nutritional supplements have received a lot of attention since the beginning of the pandemic, considering their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune system effects. The aims of this study are to evaluate the reasons and prevalence of the take of nutritional supplements in addition to the normal diet during the COVID-19 pandemic and to observe the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals’ efforts to live a healthy life.
Material-Method: This study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The data of the study was obtained through an online questionnaire containing 24 questions. The application of the questionnaire was carried out between August 1, 2021 and August 31, 2021. The online survey was delivered to people aged 18 and over living in Turkey by snowball method. Statistical evaluation was done with SPSS (statistical packet for the social science) 20.0 package program. Chi-square analysis was taken in the evaluation of categorical data.
Results: The study group was formed with 513 people. While 225 (43.9%) participants in the study received nutritional supplements, 288 (56.1%) individuals reported that they did not take nutritional supplements. The frequency of using nutritional supplements was higher in women (50.9%) than in men (29.6%) (p<0.001). The frequency of taking nutritional supplements in the undergraduate-graduate education group was higher than in the other groups (p<0.05). The frequency of taking nutritional supplements was found to be higher in the high monthly income group (4,001 ₺ and above) than in the other groups (p<0.05). The frequency of taking nutritional supplements (67.0%) was higher in those who had COVID-19 infection (38.9%) than in those who did not (p<0.05). Multivitamin was the most common combination of nutritional supplement taken in those taking nutritional supplements (10, 4.4%). Those who took nutritional supplements believed more than the other group that nutritional supplements taken in appropriate doses protected against COVID-19 infection (p<0.01).
Conclusion: For the study group, it is recommended that family physicians provide counseling on the correct take of other nutritional supplements other than multivitamins.
Review Article
Associations and Correlations of Job Stress, Job Satisfaction and Burn out in Public Health Sector
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(2), em0113, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12166
ABSTRACT: A literature review of proposed associations and correlations of job stress, job satisfaction, and burn out in public health sector. Evidence of occupational hazards job risks that are encountered by Greek public health workforce, limited global literature. Connection of occupational job stress, job satisfaction, and burn out health and safety with public health and hygiene. Provided evidence of the exact risks that are perceived in public health sector in Greece. Comprehensive relative to possible occupational hazards of public health organization and services, with established and new evidence include organizational job risks. During the COVID-19 pandemic, global financial crisis, job insecurity, decreased salaries, and social instability where working conditions changed, risk factors were affected, risk increased, and interpersonal working relationships had a particular impact under the period of the pandemic, especially for health professionals who were in the frontline. This study can bear a significant impact and with the help of various reviews we give the global associations and correlations of job stress, job satisfaction, and burn out in public health sector. A systematic review conducted on the recent period for the last decade published papers along in Scopus, Web of Science, Direct Science, and journals. There are very few papers are published based on the very contemporary title considered for the article hence this study identified several articles in the scientific literature, but only few articles were classified as eligible according to the previously established criteria.
Research Article
Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis and Related Risk Behaviors Among Female Sex Workers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(2), em0114, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12179
ABSTRACT: Objectives: Examine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis and related risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSW) in the Congo.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of 400 FSW was carried in Kinshasa from April to July 2021 using time location sampling approach. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, mode of HIV transmission, and drug use. Rapid tests for HIV and syphilis were administered. Logistic regression identified the factors associated with the risk of developing HIV infection.
Results: The prevalence of HIV and syphilis was 7.2% (n=29) and 11.5% (n= 46), respectively. The mean age of the participants was 21 years. Over half of them (53.2%) had the first intercourse between 7 and 15 years of age; 62.5% initiated commercial sex between 16 and 20 years of age. The average number of paying clients the week preceding the survey was 17.6 with SD±12.0. The average number of non-paying clients during the same period was 5.5 with SD±2.0. Most of the participants (95.8%) reported using condom during their last sexual encounter with a paying client compared to 29% with a non-paying client.
Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that being diagnosed with syphilis [OR: 7.34; 95%; CI: 3.12, 17.29] and ever been married [2.28; 95%; CI: 0.96, 5.41] were associated with HIV infection. Consumption of a locally brewed alcohol (lotoko) [OR: 2.23; 95% CI: 0.91, 5.45] was marginally associated with the risk of HIV infection.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of HIV and syphilis in this marginalized group is a matter of great public health concern. More effective interventions are needed to address the vulnerability to HIV among FS.
Review Article
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Opinions of Health Professionals and Students on Traditional and Complementary Medicine Practices in Turkey: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(2), em0115, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12186
ABSTRACT: Objective: To perform a systematic compilation and meta-analysis of research on the knowledge, attitudes, and opinions of health professionals and students on traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) practices in Turkey.
Methods: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis study. The literature review on the subject of the research was carried out between February 25 and March 8, 2022. A search was made on Google Scholar in Turkish and English with appropriate keywords for 2000 and later.
Results: A total of 43 studies were identified that met the acceptance criteria. The first three lines of TCM implementations used are, as follows: (i) massage, (ii) herbal therapy, and (iii) acupuncture. The first three lines for the most well-known TCM implementations are, as follows: (i) acupuncture, (ii) herbal therapy, and (iii) massage. The prevalence of the opinion as “TCM should be included in the curriculum of medical and health schools” ranged from 36.7% to 90.4%. The prevalence of the opinion of “It should be applied by evaluating their effectiveness with controlled studies” was between 34.4% and 95.7%. The prevalence of meta-analysis for training on TCM was found to be 21% (95% CI: 14%-29%). The meta-analysis prevalence of participants using any TCM implementation was 45% (95% CI: 37%-54%). The meta-analysis prevalence of knowing TCM implementations was found to be 66% (95% CI: 56%-75%).
Conclusion: There is increasing interest in TCM and concerns remain due to the lack of evidence-based studies. The frequency of negative thinking in physicians is higher than that of other healthcare personnel. However, in general, positive opinions about TCM were found to be dominant over negative opinions. The demand for TCM training and including TCM in school curricula is striking.
Review Article
Job Satisfaction in Public Health Care Sector, Measures Scales and Theoretical Background
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(2), em0116, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12187
ABSTRACT: Public Health care organizations are the most important social systems in which human resources are the wealth and central factor. This study is a literature review on job satisfaction in the public health care sector, giving tools to prevent with measures scales and information's in theoretical background. Evidence of job satisfaction in the public health care sector is encountered by Greek and Global public health organizations and services. Limited literature in connection and contribution of occupational health and safety with Job Satisfaction in the frame of policy and management. Public health care professionals and Administration managers in the healthcare services need to understand the benefits of adopting effective Job satisfaction.
The aim of this research was to identify also analyze the knowledge of job satisfaction in the Public Health Care Sector, Measures Scales necessary to identify and knowledge objective to positively affect Public health professionals’ job satisfaction and therefore health care sector quality services.
Information’s and knowledge produced an understanding of the mechanisms that increase job satisfaction and contribute to the improvement of psychosocial risks, and well-being to take appropriate measures and scales to create a Healthy and Hygiene working environment. Affects direct in health economics as well as organizational productivity, and quality of performance.
A systematic review was conducted for the last two-year in Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scientific Journals. There are very few papers published based on the very contemporary title considered for the article, classified as eligible according to the previously established criteria.
Research Article
Assessment of Potential Health Risk Due to Traffic-Induced Sound Pollution: A Study in Khulna City, Bangladesh
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(2), em0117, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12208
ABSTRACT: Background: Sound pollution has been emerging as a leading nuisance for urban dwellers all over the world. This study was conducted in some busiest traffic junctions of the Khulna metropolitan city of Bangladesh to reveal the impact of sound pollution on urban dwellers.
Methods: The questionnaire survey was conducted using a probability selective sampling procedure and different age groups of respondents were chosen from the five busiest traffic junctures. The necessary associations were discovered using ross-tabulation, Pearson’s Chi-square with Cramer’s V coefficient, and binary logistic regression analysis.
Results: Maximum respondents (95%) were found to be affected by several health issues (physical and psychological) due to the current level of road-traffic sound pollution. During the daytime, 98% of respondents claimed the high density of vehicles as a key factor. Meanwhile, 92% of them marked the buses [(χ2(2, n=140)=27.404, p<.0.001) with Cramer’s V coefficient of 0.44] as the most sound generating source. The respondents spending more time in the noisy places were found to have approximately 1.354, 1.311, and 1.221-times higher risk of hypertension, bad temperament, and irregular heartbeat problems, respectively than those who did not report. Notably, hearing loss issues were significantly more common among respondents from various age groups [odds ratio (OR): 1.045, 95% CI: 1.012-1.079].
Conclusion: Traffic sound pollution is harmful to human health. This study suggests that increasing awareness among people along with taking administrative measures would be effective to diminish the sound pollution problem.
Review Article
Workplace Safety and Occupational Health Job Risks Hazards in Public Health Sector in Greece
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(2), em0118, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12229
ABSTRACT: Background: A systematic literature review in field of occupational health and safety job risks hazards in public health sector under the view of process that applies principles and techniques to create, communicate, and deliver value in order to influence target audience behaviors that benefit society as well as the intended employers, and also managers. The aim of the study is to change the activities in the workplace and society that will support the overall public health sector services in Greece and global.
Methods: Review conducted and select research studies from January 2000 through February 2022, also the last two years on the recent frame of period of COVID-19 pandemic. Detected 195 studies and selected seven articles were included in this review according to criteria. These articles reported a variety of exposures faced by public health professionals working in public health sector. This review also revealed a number of strategies that can be adopted to control, eliminate, or reduce hazards job risks in occupational safety and health in Greece and global.
Conclusion: This review highlights, the positively association and correlations between workplace safety and occupational health and safety job risks hazards in public health sector in Greece. Few papers are published based on the very contemporary title considered for the article; hence, this study identified several articles in the scientific literature, but only few articles were classified as eligible according to the previously established criteria especially in public health services and organizations sector.
Research Article
Thriving on Job Demands? Exploring Associations between Goal Uncertainty, Anxiety, and Job Autonomy for Employees with Metabolic Syndrome
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(2), em0119, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12281
ABSTRACT: Anxiety disorders are among the most common distressing diseases worldwide and have been the focus of increasing attention by companies, as they are associated with impaired work performance, higher absenteeism, and greater health-related costs. The risk of disease is particularly pronounced in individuals with metabolic syndrome and unfavorable working conditions. Nevertheless, empirical knowledge on interactions of metabolic syndrome, job characteristics, and psychiatric morbidity is still sparse. This cross-sectional study included survey data from 176 company employees with diagnosed metabolic syndrome to examine associations between anxiety and job-related factors, namely goal uncertainty and job autonomy. Descriptive data analysis along with Spearman’s rank correlation analysis were performed. Study hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Results extend worksite health promotion literature by demonstrating a slightly U-shaped relation between goal uncertainty and anxiety (β=.16, p≤.05). While moderate levels of goal uncertainty contributed to well-being in terms of low anxiety severity, low and high goal uncertainty were associated with more severe anxiety. This highlights the need to consider differentiated stressor conceptualizations in research on antecedents of employees’ well-being. However, job autonomy showed neither a direct nor a moderating effect on anxiety.
Research Article
Return on Investment from the Prevention of Spinal Muscular Atrophy in Kuwait
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(2), em0120, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12321
ABSTRACT: Background: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare genetic disease with a devastating nature and associated with significant clinical and economic burden. Fortunately, the availability of genetic screening and prevention technologies made preventive strategy possible. The aim of this study is to assess the return on investment from a prevention program that includes premarital genetic screening, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and in vitro fertilization pertaining to SMA, spanning five-year period from the financial perspective of the Ministry of Health (MOH) in Kuwait.
Methods: A stochastic financial model was developed following a return on investment (ROI) approach spanning five-year period.
Results: An average ROI estimated to be 11% with cost saving amounted to 466,159 KWD (1,524,339 USD). The financial burden if the prevention program was not implemented is 16,441,539 KWD (53,763,832 USD).
Conclusion: This study is one of the very few in the region to estimate the benefits of implementing a prevention program pertaining to SMA from the financial perspective of the MOH in Kuwait.
Review Article
Population Aging in Latin America: A Salutogenic Understanding is Needed
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(2), em0121, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12322
ABSTRACT: As population aging advances, the urgency of observing healthcare models that seek to promote the comprehensiveness of the older person becomes evident. This short review explores some theoretical points that encourage the study of the Salutogenic Paradigm proposed by Antonovsky (1996), pondering the possible benefits for the gerontological field. Short readings, such as the one presented here, encourage us to explore and better understand the health of older adults and the care mechanisms that arise from it.