Increasing the Awareness of Health Risks from Lead-Contaminated Game Meat Among International and National Human Health Organizations
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(2), em0110, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12043
Lead bullets and gunshot frequently fragment on impact in game animals and the resulting lead particles are bioavailable. Dietary exposure to this lead source can present health risks to vulnerable groups including young children and frequent consumers such as hunters, subsistence indigenous communities, and recipients of game meat from food banks. Many of the frequent game meat consumers in the European Union (EU) are likely to be drawn from the 13.8 million people, including 1.1 million young children, belonging to hunters’ households. It is estimated that 10 million people are potentially at risk in the USA. National food and health advisories and regulatory considerations appear confined to Europe. Despite the European Commission requesting restrictions on lead ammunition, the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN (FAO), the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and individual countries have not adequately recognized this lead source nor developed mitigation measures. In contrast, several agreements administered by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), have well-developed risk reduction strategies for lead ammunition exposure of wildlife. These agencies could play a leadership role, stimulating appropriate international accords and national regulatory changes requiring the use of non-lead ammunition. Establishing a maximum allowable level of lead in game meat under FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius and EU Regulation 1881/2006, and harmonizing inter-agency human and environmental health approaches would be an important start.
Thomas, V. G., Pain, D. J., Kanstrup, N., and Cromie, R. (2022). Increasing the Awareness of Health Risks from Lead-Contaminated Game Meat Among International and National Human Health Organizations. European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 6(2), em0110. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12043
Thomas, V. G., Pain, D. J., Kanstrup, N., & Cromie, R. (2022). Increasing the Awareness of Health Risks from Lead-Contaminated Game Meat Among International and National Human Health Organizations. European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 6(2), em0110. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12043
Thomas VG, Pain DJ, Kanstrup N, Cromie R. Increasing the Awareness of Health Risks from Lead-Contaminated Game Meat Among International and National Human Health Organizations. EUROPEAN J ENV PUBLI. 2022;6(2):em0110. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12043
Thomas VG, Pain DJ, Kanstrup N, Cromie R. Increasing the Awareness of Health Risks from Lead-Contaminated Game Meat Among International and National Human Health Organizations. EUROPEAN J ENV PUBLI. 2022;6(2), em0110. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12043
Thomas, Vernon George, Deborah J. Pain, Niels Kanstrup, and Ruth Cromie. "Increasing the Awareness of Health Risks from Lead-Contaminated Game Meat Among International and National Human Health Organizations". European Journal of Environment and Public Health 2022 6 no. 2 (2022): em0110. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12043
Thomas, Vernon George et al. "Increasing the Awareness of Health Risks from Lead-Contaminated Game Meat Among International and National Human Health Organizations". European Journal of Environment and Public Health, vol. 6, no. 2, 2022, em0110. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12043
- AB-711. (2013). Assembly Bill 711, Rendon. Hunting: Nonlead ammunition. Chapter 742. An 706 act to amend Section 3004.5 of the Fish and Game Code, relating to hunting. Available at: http://leginfo.707legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id=201320140AB711
- ACOG. (2019). Lead screening during pregnancy and lactation. Committee Opinion No. 533. Committee on Obstetric Practice. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 120, 416-420. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e31826804e8
- AESAN. (2012). Report of the Scientific Committee of the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition (AESAN) in relation to the risk associated with the presence of lead in wild game meat in Spain. AESAN-2012-002. Report approved by the Scientific Committee on plenary session, February 22, 2012. Available at: http://aesan.msssi.gob.es/AESAN/docs/docs/evaluacion_riesgos/comite_cientifico/PLOMO_CAZA.pdf
- AEWA. (2018). 7th session of the Meeting of the Parties (MOP7). National Reports. Available at: https://www.unep-aewa.org/en/documents/national-reports
- Ahmadi, S., Maman, S., Zoumenou, R., Massougbodji, A., et al. (2018). Hunting, sale, and consumption of bushmeat killed by lead-based ammunition in Benin. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(6), 1140. https://doi.10.3390/ijerph15061140
- ANSES. (2018). AVIS de l’Agence nationale de sécurite´ sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail relatif au ‘‘risque sanitaire lie´ a` la consommation de gibier au regard des contaminants chimiques environnementaux (dioxines, polychlorobiphe´nyles (PCB), cadmium et plomb)’’. Avis de l’ANSES Saisine n.2015-SA-0109 [OPINION of the National Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health Safety relating to the ‘‘health risk associated with the consumption of game with regard to environmental chemical contaminants (dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)), cadmium and lead)’’. Opinion of ANSES Request n.2015-SA-0109]. Maisons-Alfort Cedex: ANSES. Available at: https://www.anses.fr/fr/content/consommation-de-gibiersauvage-agir-pour-r%C3%A9duire-les-expositions-auxcontaminants-chimiques
- Arnemo, J. M., Andersen, O., Stokke, S., Thomas, V. G., et al. (2016). Health and environmental risks from lead-based ammunition: Science versus socio-politics. EcoHealth, 13(4), 618-622. https://doi.10.1007/s10393-016-1177-x
- ATSDR. (2008). The potential for ingestion exposure to lead fragments in venison in Wisconsin. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, US Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia.
- ATSDR. (2020.) Toxicological profile for lead. US Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, CS274127-A, pp. 583.
- Avery, D. and Watson, R. T. (2009). Distribution of venison to humanitarian organizations in the USA and Canada, in R. T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras and W. G. Hunt (eds), Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: Implications for wildlife and humans (pp. 157-160). Boise, Idaho; The Peregrine Fund. https://doi.10.4080/ilsa.2009.0114
- BASC. (2020). A joint statement on the future of shotgun ammunition for live quarry shooting. Available at: https://basc.org.uk/a-joint-statement-on-the-future-of-shotgun-ammunition-for-live-quarry-shooting
- Bierkens, J., Buekers, J., Van Holderbeke, M. and Torfs, R. (2012). Health impact assessment and monetary valuation of IQ loss in pre-school children due to lead exposure through locally produced food. Science of the Total Environment, 414, 90-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.10.048
- Bjermo, H., Sand, S, Nälsén, C., Lundh, T., et al. (2013). Lead, mercury, and cadmium in blood and their relation to diet among Swedish adults. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 57, 161-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2013.03.024
- Bjerregaard, P., Johansen, P., Mulvad, G., Pedersen, H. S. and Hansen J. C. (2004). Lead sources in human diet in Greenland. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(15), 1496-1498. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7083
- Bressler, J. M., Yoder, S., Cooper, S. and McLaughlin, J. (2019). Blood lead surveillance and exposure sources among Alaska children. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 25(Number 1 Supplement), S71-S75. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHH.0000000000000877
- Brysse, P. N. (2019). Lead elimination for the 21st century. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 25(Supplement1), S3-S4. https://doi.10.1097/PHH.0000000000000867
- Cartró-Sabaté, M., Mayor, P., Orta-Martínez, M. and Rosell-Melé, A. (2019). Anthropogenic lead in Amazonian wildlife. Nature Sustainability, 2, 702-709. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-019-0338-7
- CDC. (2012). Low level lead exposure harms children: A renewed call for primary prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. Atlanta, GA, USA.
- CDC. (2021a). Blood lead levels in children. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/prevention/blood-lead-levels.htm
- CDC. (2021b). Blood lead reference value. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/data/blood-lead-reference-value.htm (Accessed: 31 October 2021).
- CFT. (2021). Country food trust. Guidance on lead. Available at: https://www.thecountryfoodtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Country-Food-Trust-LEAD-FORM.pdf (Accessed: 22 October 2021).
- CIC. (2021). International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC). Partners. Available at: http://www.cic-wildlife.org/partners
- CMS. (2020). Preventing poisoning of migratory birds. UNEP/CMS/Resolution 11.15 (Rev.COP13). Available at: https://www.cms.int/sites/default/files/document/cms_cop13_res.11.15_rev.cop13_e.pdf
- CMS. (2021). Terms of reference for the intergovernmental task force on phasing out the use of lead ammunition and lead fishing weights. UNEP/CMS/StC52/Doc.16. Available at: https://www.cms.int/sites/default/files/document/cms_stc52_doc.16_draft-tors_intergovernmental-task-force-on-lead_e.pdf
- Codex Alimentarius Commission. (2021). Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme CODEX Committee on Contaminants in Foods. 14th Session (virtual 3‐ 7 and 13 May 2021. Revision of The Code of Practice for the Prevention and Reduction of Lead Contamination in Foods (CXC 56‐ 2004).
- Codex Alimentarius. (2004). Code of practice for the prevention and reduction of lead contamination in foods. CAC/RCP 56-2004. Available at: http://www.codexalimentarius.org/standards/list-of-standards/
- Codex Alimentarius. (2019). General standard for contaminants and toxins in food and feed CXS 193-1995. Adopted 1995. Revised 2009. Amended in 2019. Food and Agriculture Organisation. Available at: https://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/sh-proxy/en/?lnk=1&url=https%253A%252F%252Fworkspace.fao.org%252Fsites%252Fcodex%252FStandards%252FCXS%2B193-1995%252FCXS_193e.pdf
- Cornatzer, W. E., Fogarty, E. F. and Cornatzer, E. W. (2009). Quantitative and qualitative detection of lead bullet fragments in random venison packages donated to the Community Action Food Centers of North Dakota, 2007, in R. T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras and W.G. Hunt (eds), Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans (pp. 154-156). Boise, Idaho: The Peregrine Fund. https://doi.org/10.4080/ilsa.2009.0111
- DEFRA. (2021). Press release. Plans announced to phase out lead ammunition in bid to protect wildlife. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/plans-announced-to-phase-out-lead-ammunition-in-bid-to-protect-wildlife (Accessed: 22 October 2021).
- Dignam, T., Kaufmann, R. B., LeStourgeon, L. and Brown, M. J. (2019). Control of lead sources in the United States, 1970-2017: Public health progress and current challenges to eliminating lead exposure. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 25(Supplement1), S13-S22. https://doi.10.1097/PHH.0000000000000889
- Dobrowolska, A. and Melosik, M. (2008). Bullet-derived lead in tissues of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). European Journal of Wildlife Research, 54, 231-235. https://doi.10.1007/s10344-007-0134-y
- E.C. (2006). European Commission Regulation EC 1881/2006. Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union EC 1881/2006. L364/365-L364/324. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1442063437890&uri=CELEX:32006R1881
- ECHA. (2019). Request from the European Commission to the European Chemicals Agency to prepare a restriction proposal on the placing on the market and use of lead in ammunition (shotgun and bullets) and of lead in fishing tackle conforming to the requirements of Annex XV to REACH. 16 July 2019. Available at: https://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/13641/rest_lead_ammunition_COMrequesten.pdf./f607c957-807a-3b7c-07ae-01151001d939
- ECHA. (2021). Annex XV Restriction Report-Lead in outdoor shooting and fishing. Version 2; 24 March 2021. 404 pp and Annex to the XV Report. 560 pp. 24. March 2021. European Chemicals Agency, Helsinki, Finland. Available at: https://echa.europa.eu/registry-of-restriction-intentions/-/dislist/details/0b0236e1840159e6
- EFSA. (2010). European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). Scientific opinion on lead in food. EFSA Journal, 8, 1570. https://doi.10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1570
- EFSA. (2012). European Food Safety Authority. Lead dietary exposure in the European population. EFSA Journal, 10, 28831. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2831
- European Union. (2017). 2017/C 361/01. Available at: https://www.eurofoodbank.org/represent-our- membership-at-european-and-international-level/
- European Union. (2021). Commission Regulation (EU) 2021/57. Official Journal of the European Union. Available at: https://eurlex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32021R0057&from=EN
- Fachehoun, R. C., Lévesque, B., Dumas, P., St-Louis, A., et al. (2015). Lead exposure through consumption of big game meat in Quebec, Canada: Risk assessment and perception. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A, 32, 1501-1511. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2015.1071921
- FIBL. (2021). European organic market grew to 40.7 billion euros in 2018. Available at: https://www.fibl.org/en/info-centre/news/european-organic-market-grew-to-40-7-billion-euros-in-2018.html (Accessed: August 2021).
- FSA. (2012). Risk to human health from exposure to lead from lead bullets and shot used to shoot wild game animals. Foods to avoid in pregnancy. Food Standards Agency. National Health Service.
- Gerofke, A., Ulbig, E., Martin, A. C., Müller-Graf, C., et al. (2018). Lead content in wild game shot with lead or non-lead ammunition: Does state of the art consumer health protection require non-lead ammunition? PLoS ONE, 13, e0200792. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. 0200792
- Green, R. E. and Pain, D. J. (2012). Potential health risks to adults and children in the UK from exposure to dietary lead in gamebirds shot with lead ammunition. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50, 4180-4190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.08.032
- Green, R. E. and Pain, D. J. (2015). Risks of health effects to humans in the UK from ammunition-derived lead, in R. J. Delahay and C. J. Spray (eds), Proceedings of the Oxford Lead Symposium. Lead ammunition: Understanding and minimising the risks to human and environmental health (pp. 27-43). The University of Oxford, UK; Edward Grey Institute.
- Green, R. E. and Pain, D. J. (2019). Risks to human health from ammunition-derived lead in Europe. Ambio Special Issue, 48(9), 954-968. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01194-x
- Green, R. E., Taggart, M. A., Pain, D. J., Clark, N. A., et al. (2022). Effectiveness of actions intended to achieve a voluntary transition from the use of lead to non-lead shotgun ammunition for hunting in Britain. Conservation Evidence Journal, 19, 8-14. https://doi.org/10.52201/CEJ19/SAFD8835
- Gulson, B. L., Mizon, K. J., Korsch, M. J., Palmer, J. M. and Donnelly, J. B. (2003). Mobilization of lead from human bone tissue during pregnancy and lactation—A summary of long-term research. Science of the Total Environment, 303, 79-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00355-8
- Hampton, J. O., Laidlaw, M., Buenz, E. and Arnemo, J. M. (2018). Heads in the sand: Public health and ecological risks of lead-based bullets for wildlife shooting in Australia. Wildlife Research, 45, 287-306. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR17180
- Hernberg, S. (2000). Lead poisoning in a historical perspective. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 38, 244-254. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0274(200009)38:3<244::AID-AJIM3>3.0.CO;2-F
- Hunt, W. G., Watson, R. T., Oaks, J. L., Parish, C. N., et al. (2009). Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: Potential for human dietary exposure. PLoS ONE, 4(4), e5330. https://doi.10.1371/journal.pone.0005330
- IFAN. (2020). Independent Food Bank Emergency Food Parcel Distribution in the UK. Comparing February–April 2019 with February–April 2020. Available at: https://uploads.strikinglycdn.com/files/4a18c39c-c550-4496-8779-98d4d05bd7f3/IFAN%20Report%2003.06.20%20V2.pdf
- Iqbal, S., Blumenthal, W., Kennedy, C., Yip, Y., et al. (2009). Hunting with lead: Association between blood lead levels and wild game consumption. Environmental Research, 109(8), 952-959. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2009.08.007
- Johansen, P., Asmund, G. and Riget, F. (2004). High human exposure to lead through consumption of birds hunted with lead shot. Environmental Pollution, 127(1), 125-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(03)00255-0
- Juric, A. K., Batal, M., David, W., Sharp, D., et al. (2018). Risk assessment of dietary lead exposure among First Nations people living on-reserve in Ontario, Canada using a total diet study and a probabilistic approach. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 344, 55-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.09.035
- Kanstrup, N. (2012). Lead in game birds in Denmark: Levels and sources. Danish Academy of Hunting, Article, 2012-02-1.
- Kanstrup, N. (Ed). (2009). CIC Workshop Report. Sustainable Hunting Ammunition. CIC Workshop, Aarhus, Denmark 5-7 November 2009. The International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC).
- Kanstrup, N. and Thomas, V. G. (2020). Transitioning to lead-free ammunition use in hunting: Socio-economic and regulatory considerations for the European Union and other jurisdictions. Environmental Science Europe, 32, 91. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12302-020-00368-9
- Kanstrup, N., Hansen, H. P., Balsby, T. J. S. and Mellerup, K. A. (2021). Non-lead rifle ammunition: Danish hunters’ attitudes. Environmental Sciences Europe, 33, 41. https://doi.10.1186/s12302-021-00485-z
- Kanstrup, N., Swift, J., Stroud, D. A. and Lewis, M. (2018). Hunting with lead ammunition is not sustainable: European perspectives. Ambio, 47(8), 846-857. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-018-1042-y
- Kanstrup, N., Thomas, V. G. and Fox, A. D. (eds). (2019). Lead in hunting ammunition: Persistent problems and solutions. Ambio Special Issue, 48(9), 923-1098. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01220-y
- Knutsen, H. K., Brantsæter, A. L. Alexander, J. and Meltzer, H. M. (2015). Associations between consumption of large game animals and blood lead levels in humans in Europe: The Norwegian experience, in R. J. Delahay and C. J. Spray (eds), Proceedings of the Oxford Lead Symposium. Lead ammunition: Understanding and minimising the risks to human and environmental health (pp. 44-50). The University of Oxford, UK; Edward Grey Institute.
- Kollander, B., Widemo, F., Ågren, E., Larsen, E. H. and Loeschner, K. (2017). Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of lead-containing bullets. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 409, 1877-1885. https://doi.10.1007/s00216-016-0132-6
- Kwan, M. K. H. (2018). A significant dietary source of lead to Nunavik Inuit: Ptarmigan hunting. Nunavik Research Centre, Kuujjuak, Quebec. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323691577
- LAG. (2022). Lead Ammunition Group. Available at: http://www.leadammunitiongroup.org.uk/policies/ (Accessed: 15 February 2022).
- Lanphear, B. P., Hornung, R., Khoury, J., Yolton, K., et al. (2005). Low-level environmental lead exposure and children’s intellectual function: an international pooled analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(7), 894-899. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7688
- Lenti, A., Menozzi, A., Fedrizzi, G., Menotta, S., et al. (2021). Lead levels in wild boar meat sauce (Ragù) sold on the Italian market. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18, 3989. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083989
- Livsmedelsverket. (2021). Swedish Food Agency advice on lead in game meat. Available at: https://www.livsmedelsverket.se/ (Accessed: 23 October 2021).
- Madden, J. R. (2021). How many gamebirds are released in the UK each year? European Journal of Wildlife Research, 67, 72. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-021-01508-z
- Magee, A. (2020). Meat trends: A brave new world. Food Manufacture Newsletter, 25 Feb. 2020. Available at: https://www.foodmanufacture.co.uk/Article/2020/02/25/Meat-trends-A-brave-new-world (Accessed: 22 October 2021).
- Marescotti, M. E., Caputo, V., Demartini, E. and Gaviglio, A. (2019). Discovering market segments for hunted wild game meat. Meat Science, 149, 163-176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2018.11.019
- MDA. (2021). Processor participation requirements–venison donation program. Minnesota Department of Agriculture. Available at: https://www.mda.state.mn.us/food-feed/processor-participation-requirements-venison-donation-program
- Meyer, P. A., Brown, M. J. and Falk, H. (2008). Global approach to reducing lead exposure and poisoning. Mutation Research, 659, 166-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrrev.2008.03.003
- NHS. (2020). Foods to avoid in pregnancy. National Health Service. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/pregnancy/keeping-well/foods-to-avoid/ (Accessed: 16 April 2020).
- Niewiadomska, K., Kosicka-Gębska, M., Gębski, J., Gutkowska, K., et al. (2020). Game meat consumption—Conscious choice or just a game? Foods, 9, 1357. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101357
- Nkosi, D. V., Bekker, J. L. and Hoffman L. C. (2021). Toxic metals in wild ungulates and domestic animals slaughtered for food purposes: A systemic review. Foods, 10, 2853. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112853
- Pain, D. J., Cromie, R. L, Newth, J., Brown, M. J., et al. (2010). Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals. PLoS ONE, 5(4), e10315. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010315
- Pain, D. J., Dickie, I., Green, R. E., Kanstrup, N. and Cromie, R. (2019b). Wildlife, human and environmental costs of using lead ammunition: An economic review and analysis. Ambio Special Issue, 48, 969-988. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01157-2
- Pain, D. J., Mateo, R. and Green, R. E. (2019a). Effects of lead from ammunition on birds and other wildlife: A review and update. Ambio Special Issue, 48(9), 935-953. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01159-0
- Pohl, H. R., Ingber, S. Z. and Abadin, H. G. (2017). Historical view on lead: guidelines and regulations, in A. Sigel, H. Sigel and R. K. C. Sigel (eds), Metal ions in life sciences (pp. 435-470). https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110434330-013
- Schulz, K., Brenneis, F., Winterhalter, R., Spolders, M., Fromme, H., et al. (2021). Marination increases the bioavailability of lead in game meat shot with lead ammunition. Journal of Nutritional Science, 10, e24. https://doi.org/10.1017/jns.2021.15
- Sevillano-Caño, J., Cámara-Martos, F., Zamora-Díaz, R. and Sevillano-Morales, J. S. (2021). Lead concentration in game migratory upland bird meat: Influence of ammunition impacts and health risk assessment. Food Control, 124, 107835. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107835
- Sevillano-Morales, J. S., Sevillano-Caño, J., Cámara-Martos, F., Moreno-Ortega, A., et al. (2021). Risk assessment of Cd, Cu, and Pb from the consumption of hunted meat: red-legged partridge and wild rabbit. Biological Trace Element Research, 199, 1843-1854. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02290-w
- Strazdina, V., Jemeļjanovs, A. and Šterna, V. (2013). Nutrition value of wild animal meat. Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Science, Sect B, 67(4/5), 373-377. https://doi.org/10.2478/prolas-2013-0074
- Taggart, M. A., Reglero, M. M., Camarero, P. R. and Mateo, R. (2011). Should legislation regarding maximum Pb and Cd levels in human food also cover large game meat? Environment International, 37, 18-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2010.06.007
- Tammone, A, Caselli, A. E., Condori, W. E., Fernandez, V., et al. (2021). Lead exposure in consumers of culled invasive alien mammals in El Palmar National Park, Argentina. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28, 42432-42443. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13654-7
- Thomas, V. G., Kanstrup, N. and Fox, A. D. (2019). The transition to non-lead sporting ammunition and fishing weights: Review of progress and barriers to implementation. Ambio Special Issue, 48(9), 925-934. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-018-1132-x
- Thomas, V. G., Pain, D. J, Kanstrup, N. and Green, R. E. (2020). Setting maximum levels for lead in game meat in EC regulations: An adjunct to replacement of lead ammunition. Ambio, 49, 2026-2037. https://doi.10.1007/s13280-020-01336-6
- Titus, K., Haynes, T. L. and Paragi, T. (2009). The importance of moose, caribou, deer, and small game in the diets of Alaskans, in R. T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras and W. G. Hunt (eds), Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: Implications for wildlife and humans (pp. 137-143). Boise, Idaho; The Peregrine Fund. https://doi.org/10.4080/ilsa.2009.0312
- Trinogga, A. L, Courtiol, A. and Krone, O. (2019). Fragmentation of lead-free and lead-based hunting rifle bullets under real life hunting conditions in Germany. Ambio Special Issue, 48(9), 1056-1064. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01168-z
- Uhart, M., del Valle Ferreyra, H., Romano, M., Muchiutti, A., Alzuagaray, S., Santiago, M.and Caselli, A. (2019). Lead pollution from hunting ammunition in Argentina and current state of lead shot replacement efforts. Ambio Special Issue, 48(9), 1015-1022. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01178-x
- UNEP. (2010). Final review of the scientific information on lead. Version of December 2010. Chemicals Branch, DTIE, Paris, France. United Nations Environment Programme.
- UNEP. (2018). United Nations Environment Assembly of the United Nations Environment Programme. Third session, Nairobi, 4-6 December 2017. 3/4. Environment and health. United Nations Environment Programme. Available at: https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/31019/k1800154.english.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
- UNICEF and Pure Earth. (2021). The toxic truth: Children’s exposure to lead pollution undermines a generation of future potential. Available at: http://www.pureearth.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/The-Toxic-Truth-Childrens-Exposure-To-Lead-Pollution-UNICEF-Pure-Earth-2020.pdf (Accessed: 22 October 2021).
- USDA. (2021). Food pantry use increased in 2020 for most types of U.S. households. Available at: https://www.ers.usda.gov/amber-waves/2021/november/food-pantry-use-increased-in-2020-for-most-types-of-u-s-households/#:~:text=Data%20from%20the%20Current%20Population%20Survey%20Food%20Security,pantry%2C%20an%20increase%20from%204.4%20percent%20in%202019.?msclkid=ff1fbc2ba84411ec96410f1da6873b02
- Waitrose and Partners. (2021). Our approach to animal welfare. July 2021. Available at: https://www.johnlewispartnership.co.uk/content/dam/cws/pdfs/Juniper/ethics-and-sustainability/Our-approach-to-animal-welfare-2021.pdf (Accessed: 23 October 2021).
- Wang, G., DiBari, J., Bind, E., Steffens, A. M., et al. (2019). Association between maternal exposure to lead, maternal folate status, and intergenerational risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association. Network Open, 2(10), e1912343. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12343
- White, P. A. and Belant, J. L. (2015). Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in Zambia. PloS ONE, 10(2), e0117237. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117237
- WHO. (2011). Lead. Pp 162-177, in Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Seventy-third report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Technical Report Series 960, WHO Press, Geneva Switzerland.
- WHO. (2021). Lead poisoning facts sheet. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/lead-poisoning-and-health (Accessed: 22 October 2021).
- Wilson, W. A., Harper, R. G., Alexander, G., Perara M. and Fraker, M. (2020). Lead contamination in ground venison from shotgun‑harvested white‑tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Illinois. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 105, 366-371. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02967-x
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.