EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Keyword: mortality

2 results found.

Short Communication
The Second Wave of COVID-19 and Risk of the Third Wave: Factors Affecting the Continuous Transmission, Spread of, and Increased Mortality Associated With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(2), em0081, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11056
ABSTRACT: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) originated from China and spread globally within a short period. The spread of the first and second wave of COVID-19 were influenced by factors such as population density and weather changes. Areas that are densely populated have reported increased confirmed cases of COVID-19 compared to less populated areas. The main reason for this could be the fact that it is difficult to practice social distancing in overpopulated countries. With regards to temperature changes, most respiratory infections affect people when temperatures are low. This is exaggerated when there is increased air pollution in the environment. Economic factors have prevented countries to conduct a lockdown of epicentre towns and cities. This is in fear of an economic shut down because some cities are economic cornerstones of countries. Politically, most political leaders have failed to lockdown their countries for the fear of losing political support from their citizens. Further, some traditional and religious beliefs have also influenced the spread of COVID-19, thereby leading to increased morbidity and mortality globally. The spread of COVID-19 has been worsened by peoples negative perceptions and misinformation that COVID-19 is a myth, and thus relax to adhere to the recommended preventive measures. Besides, comorbidities, poor health-seeking behavior, and lack of vaccines, inadequate treatment modalities and test kits have worsened the failure to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. The initiation and implementation of COVID-19 vaccination programs will help reduce the disease burden. However, there is need to improve the awareness and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines globally. Low COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and uptake due vaccine hesitancy have been reported globally. Hence, there is a need for continuous community sensitisation and education programmes and campaigns on the benefits of vaccines in containing disease outbreaks.
Research Article
Differences between Arkansas and the United States in Prevalence of Risk Factors Explain Variations in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality Rates among Pre-Medicare (45-64) and Medicare (65-84) Age Groups
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2019, 3(1), em0024, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/5838
ABSTRACT: Arkansas (AR) consistently has higher ischemic heart disease (IHD) death rates than the US, which is believed to be due to a higher prevalence in AR of major, modifiable risk factors. We examined the difference in IHD death rates between AR and the US as consequences of differences in the prevalence of nine risk factors between pre-Medicare age group (45-64) and Medicare age group (65-84). We modeled IHD deaths attributable to differential prevalence between AR and the US using mortality data and prevalence data from AR and US for years 2000-2010, and relative risk measures obtained from the INTERHEART and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities studies. From 2000-2010, our study showed that if we were to reduce the prevalence of significant risk factors to US levels, we would reduce AR IHD deaths by 26.6% in the pre-Medicare age group and 15.9% in the Medicare age group. Most of the increased mortality was explained by higher prevalence of smoking and hypertension in AR. Other socioeconomic factors that contributed to an increased risk of poor health outcomes were education, income, and the lack of health insurance; with AR having worse outcomes than the US for the pre-Medicare age group. The importance of risk factors depended on race, sex, and age. The excess mortality in AR relative to the US for the two age groups can largely be explained by prevalence differences in smoking, hypertension, cholesterol, education and income.