Volume 1, Issue 2, 2017
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2017, 1(2), 06, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/77094
ABSTRACT: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent non-communicable diseases in the world. Cell membrane injury is an important mechanism for pathophysoilogical changes in DM. Osmotic fragility (OF) status of Red blood cell (RBC) in hyperglycemic patients is expected to be increased. This study was conducted in Chittagong medical college hospital and Chittagong Diabetic Hospital from January 2015 to December 2015. 100 newly diagnosed (duration ≤ 3 years) type II diabetes mellitus patients (Fasting blood glucose is ≥7 mmol/L) were selected as cases. Age, sex and BMI matched 100 healthy subjects were included as control. OF of RBC was measured by traditional method with a series of hypotonic solution of NaCl of different strength in twelve test tubes numbered serially. The relationship of OF with Fasting blood sugar (FBS) and two hours post prandial blood sugar (2 HPPBS) were evaluated. Unpaired Student ‘t’ test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test were done for statistical analysis. p value <0.05 was considered as significant. 87% of cases showed normal hemolysis and only 12% had early hemolysis. Mean value of NaCl solution for partial and complete hemolysis in cases were 0.44±0.06(%) and 0.32±0.02(%) respectively; for control group the findings were 0.04±0.06(%) and 0.32±0.02(%). Significant relationship (p<0.001) was found regarding osmotic fragility with FBS ≥ 7 mmol/L and 2 HPPBS ≥ 11.1 mmol/L. OF of RBC is increased in type II diabetes mellitus.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Satisfaction of University Students Regarding Premarital Screening Programs in Kuwait
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2017, 1(2), 07, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/78075
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of genetic blood disorders is high, ranging from 10-25%, in Kuwait. This high prevalence is mainly due to a preventable cause, namely, consanguineous marriages. One of the most successful programs in Kuwait implemented to reduce such high prevalence is premarital screening program. The aim of the study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and satisfaction among university students regarding premarital screening program, and to find out the factors influencing knowledge, attitude, and satisfaction of the people toward premarital screening program. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 809 students of Kuwait University during July-October 2016. A self-administered questionnaire including 51 questions was handed out to the participants after taking informed consent. The main outcome variables of this study were: knowledge of hereditary diseases, premarital screening, attitude, and satisfaction toward premarital screening program. The mean ± SD of knowledge score about hereditary diseases was 5.80 ± 2.9 out of a total of 14, and the knowledge score for premarital screening was 3.99 ± 1.2 out of 6. In univariate analysis, knowledge scores about hereditary diseases were significantly associated with marital status (P = 0.043), education in medical faculties (P < 0.001), higher education of father (P = 0.027), higher education of mother (P = 0.001), and presence of hereditary disease in the family (P = 0.003). The level of attitude toward premarital screening program was significantly associated with female gender (P < 0.001), marital status (P = 0.023), higher years of study (P = 0.002), higher family income (P = 0.019). In multivariate analysis, education in medical faculties and presence of hereditary disease in the family were significant predictors of knowledge about hereditary disease. This study identified some demographic factors which determined the outcome of knowledge about premarital screening and hereditary disease. Also, the study demonstrated that more than 90% of the people were not satisfied about the premarital screening program, and more than 70% had to wait for a long time before receiving the test results. These areas of dissatisfaction should be improved for a successful program.
Disparities in Insurance Type among Minorities for Congestive Heart Failure Diagnosis in the Ambulatory Care Setting
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2017, 1(2), 08, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/81155
ABSTRACT: Background: Lack of access to healthcare, health insurance and health providers and access to quality healthcare is strongly related to socioeconomic inequalities. These inequities are thought to reflect social and economic disparities more than biological differences associated with the race of the individuals. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between ethnicity/race and method of payment with the diagnosis of new onset heart failure in the ambulatory care setting. Health care disparities have been well documented to exist in various demographics and socioeconomic statuses. Specifically, there are differences in access to and quality of healthcare between ethnic and racial groups; and additionally, the quantity and quality of care that a patient receives is dependent on the patients’ insurance status. Methods: Data sets for this study were retrieved from the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC’s] National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) - as this is the most recent data available for analysis. The IBM SPSS Version 20.0 statistical software was used to conduct the analysis of the data. Cross-tabulation of the dependent and independent variables was completed to examine the prevalence of CHF diagnosis by insurance type and ethnicity/race. Correlation tests were run to determine if any significant correlations between the variable existed in the target population. Lastly, Chi-Square tests were analyzed on the independent variable to determine if there was a statistically significant association with the dependent variable. Result: The results supported past research which found that racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities exist in health care. The data demonstrates the number of respondents’ self-identified ethnicity/race cross referenced with the corresponding method of payment. In addition, the number of respondents’ self-identified ethnicity/race was cross referenced with the number of new diagnosis of CHF. Conclusion: Disparities in the diagnosis of CHF are significantly associated with ethnicity, race, and insurance status. The results demonstrate that substantial differences exist between ethnicities and race in the diagnosis of CHF. Further, substantial differences were discovered in the diagnosis of CHF between the privately insured, publically insured, and the uninsured.
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2017, 1(2), 09, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/81156
ABSTRACT: This paper explores the utility of psychoanalysis for understanding the underlying meaning of healthcare work. At times deeply fulfilling, while at other times demanding and thankless, the provision of healthcare takes a unique toll on the psyche. Psychoanalysis is particularly suited for highlighting the paradoxical character of healthcare work because of its focus on the unconscious, emotional and irrational aspects of psychic life. Exploring the latent meaning of healthcare work, as well as the complex interplay between work and worker, allows for deeper insight into contemporary issues of healthcare management and organization.
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2017, 1(2), 10, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/81157
ABSTRACT: This study determined the level of depression and the rate of diabetes among the adult African American female population. By identifying the population early, one can save millions of dollars, improve health outcomes, and treat depression that typically interferes with diabetes management. The study used secondary data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey. The 2011-2012 CHIS surveyed 42,935 adults and of those surveyed 1,403 respondents identified themselves as African Americans. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the strength of the association between diabetes in African American women with depression and exercise. The results of the statistical tests show that there was an association between the independent variables suggesting a statistically significant relationship in African American women. A major limitation of the study was the small number of African Americans interviewed in the survey. A larger sample size at the national level is recommended to more closely scrutinize the directional nature of the relationship between diabetes and depression in African American women.