Objective: The study aims to assess the level of Saudi Hospital Disaster Preparedness (HDP).
Methods: This study has utilized exploratory quantitative design with a structured self-administered questionnaire. It has adopted a convenient sampling technique, which has included nine hospitals within three Saudi Cities (Riyadh, Jeddah, and Dammam). The questionnaire contains 48 indicators in six HDP domains: planning, structural, non-structural, management, functional, and human resource competency capacities.
Results: The level of Saudi HDP was 69.8%. The domain of management capacity had the highest level of preparedness, at 83.6%, while human resources competency capacity was the least prepared, at 63%. The Spearman correlation revealed a positive significant relationship between preparing to respond to a disaster when occur and all HDP capacity indicators, r (46) = 0.424, p = < .001. A one-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference in HDP between the three cities; Riyadh hospitals were the most prepared, F (2, 313) = 4.343, p < .05. It also showed that there were significant differences in preparedness between the MOH, other governmental, and university hospitals; university hospitals were the most prepared, F (2, 313) = 5.087, p < .05.
Conclusion: Overall, Saudi hospitals have a high level of HDP, which indicates that they are likely to function well in the eventuality of disasters. There is a great opportunity to strengthen HDP capacities to improve hospital readiness in the medium-long term. The implemented HDP assessment tool should be built into hospitals’ systems and coordinated among involved governmental sectors.
An Assessment of Saudi Hospitals’ Disaster Preparedness
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(2), em0071, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9663
Alsalem, M. M., and Alghanim, S. A. (2021). An Assessment of Saudi Hospitals’ Disaster Preparedness. European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 5(2), em0071. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9663
Alsalem, M. M., & Alghanim, S. A. (2021). An Assessment of Saudi Hospitals’ Disaster Preparedness. European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 5(2), em0071. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9663
Alsalem MM, Alghanim SA. An Assessment of Saudi Hospitals’ Disaster Preparedness. EUROPEAN J ENV PUBLI. 2021;5(2):em0071. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9663
Alsalem MM, Alghanim SA. An Assessment of Saudi Hospitals’ Disaster Preparedness. EUROPEAN J ENV PUBLI. 2021;5(2), em0071. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9663
Alsalem, Majed Mohammed, and Saad Abdullah Alghanim. "An Assessment of Saudi Hospitals’ Disaster Preparedness". European Journal of Environment and Public Health 2021 5 no. 2 (2021): em0071. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9663
Alsalem, Majed Mohammed et al. "An Assessment of Saudi Hospitals’ Disaster Preparedness". European Journal of Environment and Public Health, vol. 5, no. 2, 2021, em0071. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9663
- AlHarastani, H. A. M., Alawad, Y. I., Devi, B., Mosqueda, B. G., Tamayo, V., Kyoung, F., ... and Sierra, S. (2020). Emergency and Disaster Preparedness at a Tertiary Medical City. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.28
- Alrazeeni, D. (2015). Saudi EMS Students’ Perception of and Attitudes toward Their Preparedness for Disaster Management. Journal of education and practice, 6(35), 110-116.
- Al-Shareef, A. S., Alsulimani, L. K., Bojan, H. M., Masri, T. M., Grimes, J. O., Molloy, M. S, Ciottone, G. R. (2017). Evaluation of hospitals’ disaster preparedness plans in the holy city of Makkah (Mecca): a cross-sectional observation study. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 32(1), 33-45. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X16001229
- Althobaity, H. M., Alharthi, R. A., Altowairqi, M. H., Alsufyani, Z. A., Aloufi, N. S., Altowairqi, A. E., ... and Abdel-Moneim, A. S. (2017). Knowledge and awareness of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus among Saudi and Non-Saudi Arabian pilgrims. International journal of health sciences, 11(5), 20.
- Ardalan, A., Kandi, M., Talebian, M. T., Khankeh, H., Masoumi, G., Mohammadi, R., … and Mehranamin, S. (2014). Hospitals safety from disasters in IR iran: the results from assessment of 224 hospitals. PLoS currents, 6.
- Bajow, N. A. and Alkhalil, S. M. (2014). Evaluation and analysis of hospital disaster preparedness in Jeddah. Health, 6(19), 2668. https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2014.619306
- Baker, O. G., Alamri, A. A. and Aboshaiqah, A. E. (2019). A descriptive study to analyse the disaster preparedness among Saudi nurses through self‐regulation survey. Journal of nursing management, 27(7), 1479-1484. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12833
- Bayntun, C., Rockenschaub, G. and Murray, V. (2012). Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. PLoS currents, 4. https://doi.org/10.1371/5028b6037259a
- CDC (2013). Hospital All-Hazards Self-Assessment Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/phpr/documents/AHPG_FINAL_March_2013.pdf
- Chaffee, M. W. and Oster, N. S. (2005). Role of Hospitals in Disasters. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 20(S2), S138-S138. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X00015107
- Heidaranlu, E., Ebadi, A., Khankeh, H. R. and Ardalan, A. (2015). Hospital disaster preparedness tools: a systematic review. PLoS currents, 7. https://doi.org/10.1371/currents.dis.7a1ab3c89e4b433292851e349533fd77
- Heidaranlu, E., Khankeh, H., Ebadi, A. and Ardalan, A. (2017). An evaluation of non-structural vulnerabilities of hospitals involved in the 2012 east Azerbaijan earthquake. Trauma Mon, 22(2), e28590. https://doi.org/10.5812/traumamon.28590
- Ibrahim, F. A. A. (2014). Nurses knowledge, attitudes, practices and familiarity regarding disaster and emergency preparedness–Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Nursing Science, 3(2), 18-25. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajns.20140302.12
- Jenkins, J. L., Kelen, G. D., Sauer, L. M., Fredericksen, K. A. and McCarthy, M. L. (2009). Review of hospital preparedness instruments for National Incident Management System compliance. Disaster medicine and public health preparedness, 3(S1), S83-S89. https://doi.org/10.1097/DMP.0b013e3181a06c5f
- Kaji, A. H., Langford, V. and Lewis, R. J. (2008). Assessing hospital disaster preparedness: a comparison of an on-site survey, directly observed drill performance, and video analysis of teamwork. Annals of emergency medicine, 52(3), 195-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2007.10.026
- Kapur, G. B. and Smith, J. P. (2010). Emergency public health: Preparedness and response. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
- Mulyasari, F., Inoue, S., Prashar, S., Isayama, K., Basu, M., Srivastava, N. and Shaw, R. (2013). Disaster preparedness: looking through the lens of hospitals in Japan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 4(2), 89-100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13753-013-0010-1
- Nekoie-Moghadam, M., Kurland, L., Moosazadeh, M., Ingrassia, P. L., Della Corte, F. and Djalali, A. (2016). Tools and checklists used for the evaluation of hospital disaster preparedness: a systematic review. Disaster medicine and public health preparedness, 10(5), 781-788. https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2016.30
- Nelson, C., et al. (2007). Conceptualizing and defining public health emergency preparedness. American Public Health Association, 97(Suppl 1), 9-11. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.114496
- Nofal, A., Alfayyad, I., Khan, A., Al Aseri, Z. and Abu-Shaheen, A. (2018). Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of emergency department staff towards disaster and emergency preparedness at tertiary health care hospital in central Saudi Arabia. Saudi medical journal, 39(11), 1123. https://doi.org/10.15537/smj.2018.11.23026
- Shalhoub, A. A. B., Khan, A. A. and Alaska, Y. A. (2017). Evaluation of disaster preparedness for mass casualty incidents in private hospitals in Central Saudi Arabia. Saudi medical journal, 38(3), 302. https://doi.org/10.15537/smj.2017.3.17483
- Sunindijo, R. Y., Lestari, F. and Wijaya, O. (2019). Hospital safety index: assessing the readiness and resiliency of hospitals in Indonesia. Facilities, 38(1/2), 39-51. https://doi.org/10.1108/F-12-2018-0149
- White, T., Ariaratnam, S. T. and Michael, J. (2012). Subterranean infrastructure reconnaissance for manmade and natural hazards and disasters. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 3(1), 66-86. https://doi.org/10.1108/17595901211201141
- WHO (2012). WHO’s hospital safety index and emergency checklist rolled out in Europe, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/emergencies/pages/news/news/2012/10/whos-hospital-safety-index-and-emergency-checklist-rolled-out-in-europe
- WHO (2016). Preparing for Disaster – hospital safety index training takes place in Kazakhstan, World Health Organization Geneva, Switzerland. Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/en/countries/kazakhstan/news/news/2016/10/preparing-for-disaster-hospital-safety-index-training-takes-place-in-kazakhstan
- WHO. (2009). Hospital preparedness checklist for pandemic influenza: focus on pandemic (H1N1), 2009. Avaiable at: https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/communicable-diseases/influenza/publications/2009/hospital-preparedness-checklist-for-pandemic-influenza-focus-on-pandemic-h1n1-2009
- World Health Organization. (2019). Hospital safety index: Guide for evaluators. PAHO.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.