EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH
Research Article

“It Makes you Fly to the Moon” - Stakeholder Perceptions of Physical Activity in the School Environment

European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(2), em0070, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9372
Full Text (PDF)

ABSTRACT

Abstract. Children are not achieving recommended levels of physical activity (PA), and a comprehensive school PA program (CSPAP) has been suggested as a way to address this within the school environment (CDC, 2017). Purpose: The purpose of this study, was to explore multiple stakeholders’ perceptions (i.e., students, teachers, principal) of PA in the school environment. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted; students in Kindergarten through grade two (N = 31) participated in focus group interviews, while teachers (N = 9) and the principal (N = 1) participated in individual interviews. Data were analyzed inductively using open and axial coding (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Results: Teachers and the principal had favorable perceptions of PA in school, identified barriers and needed supports (teachers). Students liked PA, believed it was good for them, and wanted more PA opportunities at school. Conclusion: These results provide multi-level stakeholder support for PA promotion within the school environment; and are important to consider within the CSPAP framework.

KEYWORDS

CSPAP physical activity school environment participant perceptions

CITATION (Harvard)

McMullen, J. M., Hodgin, K., Krause, J. M., Dauenhauer, B., and Carson, R. L. (2021). “It Makes you Fly to the Moon” - Stakeholder Perceptions of Physical Activity in the School Environment. European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 5(2), em0070. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9372
APA
McMullen, J. M., Hodgin, K., Krause, J. M., Dauenhauer, B., & Carson, R. L. (2021). “It Makes you Fly to the Moon” - Stakeholder Perceptions of Physical Activity in the School Environment. European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 5(2), em0070. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9372
Vancouver
McMullen JM, Hodgin K, Krause JM, Dauenhauer B, Carson RL. “It Makes you Fly to the Moon” - Stakeholder Perceptions of Physical Activity in the School Environment. EUROPEAN J ENV PUBLI. 2021;5(2):em0070. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9372
AMA
McMullen JM, Hodgin K, Krause JM, Dauenhauer B, Carson RL. “It Makes you Fly to the Moon” - Stakeholder Perceptions of Physical Activity in the School Environment. EUROPEAN J ENV PUBLI. 2021;5(2), em0070. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9372
Chicago
McMullen, Jaimie M, Katie Hodgin, Jennifer M Krause, Brian Dauenhauer, and Russell L Carson. "“It Makes you Fly to the Moon” - Stakeholder Perceptions of Physical Activity in the School Environment". European Journal of Environment and Public Health 2021 5 no. 2 (2021): em0070. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9372
MLA
McMullen, Jaimie M et al. "“It Makes you Fly to the Moon” - Stakeholder Perceptions of Physical Activity in the School Environment". European Journal of Environment and Public Health, vol. 5, no. 2, 2021, em0070. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9372

REFERENCES

  1. Abbott, R. A., Straker, L. M. and Erik Mathiassen, S. (2013). Patterning of children’s sedentary time at and away from school. Obesity, 21, E131-E133. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20127
  2. Allison, K. R., Vu-Nguyen, K., Ng, B., Schoueri-Mychasiw, N., Dwyer, J. J., Manson, H., ... Robertson, J. (2016). Evaluation of daily physical activity (DPA) policy implementation in Ontario: Surveys of elementary school administrators and teachers. BMC Public Health, 16, 746. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3423-0
  3. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513-531. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513
  4. Bronfenbrenner, U. and Morris, P. A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In W. Damon and R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 993-1028). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
  5. Brown, K. M. and Elliott, S. J. (2015). “It’s not as easy as just saying 20 minutes a day”: Exploring teacher and principal experiences implementing a provincial physical activity policy. Universal Journal of Public Health, 3, 71-83. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujph.2015.030204
  6. Carson, R. L., Castelli, D. M., Beighle, A. and Erwin, H. (2014). School-based physical activity promotion: A conceptual framework for research and practice. Childhood Obesity, 10, 100-106. https://doi.org/10.1089/chi.2013.0134
  7. Centeio, E. E., Erwin, H. and Castelli, D. M. (2014a). Chapter 4 Comprehensive school physical activity programs: Characteristics of trained teachers. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33, 492-510. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2014-0066
  8. Centeio, E. E., McCaughtry, N., Gutuskey, L., Garn, A. C., Somers, C., Shen, B., … Kulik, N. L. (2014b). Chapter 8 Physical activity change through comprehensive school physical activity programs in urban elementary schools. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33, 573-591. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2014-0067
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (2017). Increasing physical education and physical activity: A framework for schools. CDC: Atlanta, GA.
  10. Corbin, J. and Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452230153
  11. Creswell, J.W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design. Choosing Among Five Approaches (3rd ed). Sage Publications Inc: Thousand Oaks, CA.
  12. Dinkel, D., Schaffer, C., Snyder, K. and Lee, J. M. (2017). They just need to move: Teachers’ perception of classroom physical activity breaks. Teaching and Teacher Education, 63, 186-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.12.020
  13. Ellis, Y. G., Cliff, D. P. and Okely, A. D. (2018). Childcare educators’ perceptions of and solutions to reducing sitting time in young children: A qualitative study. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46, 377-385. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-017-0867-5
  14. Emmons, K. (2000). Health behaviours in a social context. In L. Berkman and I. Kawachi (Eds.), Social epidemiology (pp. 242-266). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  15. Finn, K. E. and McInnis, K. J. (2014). Teachers’ and students’ perceptions of the active science curriculum: Incorporating physical activity into middle school science classrooms. The Physical Educator, 71, 234-253.
  16. Goc Karp, G., Scruggs, P. W., Brown, H. and Kelder, S. H. (2014). Chapter 10 Implications for comprehensive school physical activity program implementation. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33, 611-623. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2014-0116
  17. Goh, T. L., Hannon, J. C., Webster, C. A. and Podlog, L. (2017). Classroom teachers’ experiences implementing a movement integration program: Barriers, facilitators, and continuance. Teaching and Teacher Education, 66, 88-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.04.003
  18. Hnatiuk, J. A., Salmon, J., Hinkley, T., Okely, A. D. and Trost, S. (2014). A review of preschool children’s physical activity and sedentary time using objective measures. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 47, 487-497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2014.05.042
  19. Howie, E. K., Beets, M. W. and Pate, R. R. (2014). Acute classroom exercise breaks improve on-task behavior in 4th and 5th grade students: A dose-response. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 7, 65-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2014.05.002
  20. Hunt, K. and Metzler, M. (2017). Adoption of comprehensive school physical activity programs: A literature review. Physical Educator, 74(2), . https://doi.org/10.18666/TPE-2017-V74-I2-7167
  21. Institute of Medicine. (2013). Educating the student body: Taking physical activity and physical education to school. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  22. Jones, E. M., Taliaferro, A. R., Elliott, E. M., Bulger, S. M., Kristjansson, A. L., Neal, W. and Allar, I. (2014). Chapter 3 Feasibility study of comprehensive school physical activity programs in Appalachian communities: The McDowell CHOICES project. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33, 467-491. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2014-0065
  23. Kvale and Brinkmann, 2009. Interviews. Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing. (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  24. Lu, C. and Montague, B. (2016). Move to learn, learn to move: Prioritizing physical activity in early childhood education programming. Early Childhood Education Journal, 44, 409-417. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-015-0730-5
  25. Lynch, T. (2015). Health and physical education (HPE): Implementation in primary schools. International Journal of Educational Research, 70, 88-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2015.02.003
  26. Määttä, S., Ray, C., Roos, G. and Roos, E. (2016). Applying a socioecological model to understand preschool children’s sedentary behaviors from the viewpoints of parents and preschool personnel. Early Childhood Education Journal, 44, 491-502. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-015-0737-y
  27. Martin, R. and Murtagh, E. M. (2017). Teachers’ and students’ perspectives of participating in the ‘Active Classrooms’ movement integration programme. Teaching and Teacher Education, 63, 218-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.01.002
  28. McMullen, J. M., MacPhail, A. and Dillon, M. (2019). “I want to do it all day!”—Students’ experiences of classroom movement integration. International Journal of Educational Research, 94, 52-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2018.11.014
  29. McMullen, J. M., Martin, R., Jones, J. and Murtagh, E. M. (2016). Moving to learn Ireland - Classroom teachers’ experiences of movement integration. Teaching and Teacher Education, 60, 321-330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.08.019
  30. McMullen, J. M., Ní Chróinín, D., Tammelin, T., Pogorzelska, M. and van der Mars, H. (2015). International approaches to whole-of-school physical activity promotion. Quest, 67, 384-399. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2015.1082920
  31. McMullen, J., Kulinna, P. and Cothran, D. (2014). Chapter 5 Physical activity opportunities during the school day: Classroom teachers’ perceptions of using activity breaks in the classroom. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33, 511-527. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2014-0062
  32. Michael, R. D., Webster, C.A., Egan, C., Nilges, L., Ali, B., Johnson, R. and Carson, R. L. (2019). Facilitators and barriers to movement integration in elementary classrooms: A systematic review. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 90, 151-162. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2019.1571675
  33. Morse, L. L. and Allensworth, D. D. (2015). Placing students at the center: The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Model. Journal of School Health, 85, 785-794. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12313
  34. National Physical Activity Plan Alliance. (2016). U.S. National Physical Activity Plan. Retrieved from http://physicalactivityplan.org/docs/2016NPAP_Finalforwebsite.pdf
  35. Phelps, A., Calvert, H. G., Hwang, J., Glowacki, E., Carson, R. L. and Castelli, D. (2018). Environmental Characteristics Related to Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program Implementation. European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2(2), 07. https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/92007
  36. Rasmussen, M. and Laumann, K. (2013). The academic and psychological benefits of exercise in healthy children and adolescents. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28, 945-962. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-012-0148-z
  37. Riley, N., Lubans, D., Holmes, K., Hansen, V., Gore, J. and Morgan, P. (2017). Movement-based mathematics: Enjoyment and engagement without compromising learning through the EASY minds program. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics Science and Technology Education, 13, 1653-1673. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2017.00690a
  38. Routen, A. C., Johnston, J. P., Glazebrook, C. and Sherar, L. B. (2018). Teacher perceptions on the delivery and implementation of movement integration strategies: The CLASS PAL (Physically Active Learning) Programme. International Journal of Educational Research, 88, 48-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2018.01.003
  39. Russ, L. B., Webster, C. A., Beets, M. W., Egan, C., Weaver, R. G., Harvey, R. and Phillips, D. S. (2017). Development of the System for Observing Student Movement in Academic Routines and Transitions (SOSMART). Health Education & Behavior, 44, 304-315. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198116657778
  40. Shoval, E., Sharir, T., Arnon, M. and Tenenbaum, G. (2018). The effect of integrating movement into the learning environment of kindergarten children on their academic achievements. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46, 355-364. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-017-0870-x
  41. Stylianou, M., Kulinna, P. H. and Naiman, T. (2016). “… because there’s nobody who can just sit that long”: Teacher perceptions of classroom-based physical activity and related management issues. European Physical Education Review, 22, 390-408. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X15613968
  42. Sullivan, R. A., Kuzel, A. H., Vaandering, M. E. and Chen, W. (2017). The association of physical activity and academic behavior: A systematic review. Journal of School Health, 87, 388-398. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12502
  43. Szabo-Reed, A. N., Willis, E. A., Lee, J., Hillman, C. H., Washburn, R. A. and Donnelly, J. E. (2017). Impact of three years of classroom physical activity bouts on time-on-task behavior. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 49, 2343-2350. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001346
  44. Todd, C., Christian, D., Davies, H., Rance, J., Stratton, G., Rapport, F. and Brophy, S. (2015). Headteachers’ prior beliefs on child health and their engagement in school based health interventions: A qualitative study. BMC Research Notes, 8, 161. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1091-2
  45. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS; 2018). Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition. USDHHS: Washington, DC.
  46. van den Berg, V., Salimi, R., de Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., Chinapaw, M. J. M. and Singh, A. S. (2017). “It’s a battle ... You want to do it, but how will you get it done?”: Teachers’ and principals’ perceptions of implementing additional physical activity in school for academic performance. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14, 1160, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101160
  47. Webster, C. A., Beets, M., Weaver, R. G., Vazou, S. and Russ, L. (2015). Rethinking recommendations for implementing comprehensive school physical activity programs: A partnership model, Quest, 67, 185-202. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2015.1017588
  48. Webster, C. A., Zarrett, N., Skiles-Cook, B., Egan, C. and Nesbitt, D. (2017). Movement integration in elementary classrooms: Teacher perceptions and implications for program planning. Evaluation and Program Planning, 61, 134-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2016.12.011
  49. Weissman, P. and Hendrick, J. (2013). The whole child: Developmental education for the early years (10th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
  50. World Health Organization (WHO). (2012). Population-based approaches to childhood obesity prevention. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood/WHO_new_childhoodobesity_PREVENTION_27nov_HR_PRINT_OK.pdf

LICENSE

Creative Commons License
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.