European Journal of Environment and Public Health

Self-medication and its Consequences during & after the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Global Health Problem
Steward Mudenda 1 2 * , Bwalya Angel Witika 3, Mohammad Jaffar Sadiq 4, Michelo Banda 1, Ruth Lindizyani Mfune 2 5, Victor Daka 2 5, Damaless Kalui 1, Maureen Nkandu Phiri 1, Maisa Kasanga 5 6, Frank Mudenda 7, Webrod Mufwambi 1
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1 University of Zambia, School of Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 50110, Lusaka, ZAMBIA
2 University of Zambia, School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Disease Control, P.O Box 32379, Lusaka, ZAMBIA
3 Department of Pharmacy, DDT College of Medicine, P.O Box 70587, Gaborone, BOTSWANA
4 Department of Pharmacology, Batterjee Medical College for Science and Technology, Jeddah, SAUDI ARABIA
5 Copperbelt University, Michael Chilufya Sata School of Medicine, P.O Box 71191, Ndola, ZAMBIA
6 University Teaching Hospitals, P/Bag RW1X, Lusaka, ZAMBIA
7 University of Pretoria, Department of Civil Engineering, Pretoria, Hatfield, 0001, SOUTH AFRICA
* Corresponding Author
Letter to Editor

European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021 - Volume 5 Issue 1, Article No: em0066
https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/9308

Published Online: 30 Nov 2020

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How to cite this article
APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Mudenda et al., 2021)
Reference: Mudenda, S., Witika, B. A., Sadiq, M. J., Banda, M., Mfune, R. L., Daka, V., . . . Mufwambi, W. (2021). Self-medication and its Consequences during & after the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Global Health Problem. European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 5(1), em0066. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/9308
Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Mudenda S, Witika BA, Sadiq MJ, Banda M, Mfune RL, Daka V, et al. Self-medication and its Consequences during & after the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Global Health Problem. EUROPEAN J ENV PUBLI. 2021;5(1):em0066. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/9308
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Mudenda S, Witika BA, Sadiq MJ, et al. Self-medication and its Consequences during & after the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Global Health Problem. EUROPEAN J ENV PUBLI. 2021;5(1), em0066. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/9308
Chicago
In-text citation: (Mudenda et al., 2021)
Reference: Mudenda, Steward, Bwalya Angel Witika, Mohammad Jaffar Sadiq, Michelo Banda, Ruth Lindizyani Mfune, Victor Daka, Damaless Kalui, Maureen Nkandu Phiri, Maisa Kasanga, Frank Mudenda, and Webrod Mufwambi. "Self-medication and its Consequences during & after the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Global Health Problem". European Journal of Environment and Public Health 2021 5 no. 1 (2021): em0066. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/9308
Harvard
In-text citation: (Mudenda et al., 2021)
Reference: Mudenda, S., Witika, B. A., Sadiq, M. J., Banda, M., Mfune, R. L., Daka, V., . . . Mufwambi, W. (2021). Self-medication and its Consequences during & after the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Global Health Problem. European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 5(1), em0066. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/9308
MLA
In-text citation: (Mudenda et al., 2021)
Reference: Mudenda, Steward et al. "Self-medication and its Consequences during & after the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Global Health Problem". European Journal of Environment and Public Health, vol. 5, no. 1, 2021, em0066. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/9308
ABSTRACT
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory tract infection that emerged from China in December 2019 and is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Due to the airborne nature of its transmission, COVID-19 spread to the rest of the world rapidly. Thus, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic. This paper evaluated the factors that lead to self-medication in people suffering from respiratory tract infections such as COVID-19, and the consequences of practicing self-medication using antimicrobial agents. Most of the signs and symptoms of COVID-19 are also seen in infections such as malaria, flu, and the common cold. For this reason, and also due to poor healthcare-seeking behaviour, most people tend to self-medicate using medicines that are known to be effective against malaria, common cold, and COVID-19. Among the commonly used medicines in the practice of self-medication include antibacterials, antimalarials, and antivirals. Some vitamins such as vitamin C boost the immune system enabling it to provide effective defence mechanisms against microbes. However, self-medication may pose consequences such as the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms, hypersensitivity reactions as well as dose-dependent toxicities viz dermatoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and hepatoxicity. Infectious diseases caused by antimicrobial-resistant microbes are difficult and, in some instances, impossible to treat thereby leading to increased morbidity and mortality among infected people. Consequently, antimicrobial resistance poses another global public health problem and requires a multisectoral approach to curb. It is our recommendation that all governments ensure that there are adequate medicines and efficient human resources in healthcare facilities as well as sufficient public awareness to prevent people from seeking self-medication.
KEYWORDS
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