EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Volume 5, Issue 1, 2021

Research Article
Genetic versus Environmental Analysis of Reproductive Behavior of Female Twins
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(1), em0051, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8365
ABSTRACT: Purpose: The study aims at investigating the relationship between environmental and hereditary causes of reproductive behaviour, which would otherwise be difficult to study.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study of the female reproductive health of twins investigated the heritability of qualitative and quantitative measured variables related to the reproductive behaviour of adult twins. Subjects included192 identical and non-identical twins, 15 years of age and above, who were living in urban areas of Malaysia.
Results: Basic genetic analysis for variables related to reproductive behaviour revealed that the age of first pregnancy, number of pregnancies and age of first marriage were under genetic influence. Proband wise concordance rate analysis showed higher similarity between identical twins in adopting recommended reproductive behaviour such as undergoing pap smears and using family planning techniques. The model-fitting analysis supported these findings.
Literature Review
Disaster Preparedness in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Exploring and Evaluating the Policy, Legislative Organisational Arrangements Particularly During the Hajj Period
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(1), em0053, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8424
ABSTRACT: This paper examines the natural disasters that have historically taken place in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, particularly during Hajj (the largest mass gathering event in the world).  A literature search of multiple databases was conducted to identify what is currently known about the effectiveness of disaster management arrangements, policies and plans in the KSA.
Research Article
Assessment of Noise Levels in Primary and Secondary Schools in Nnewi, Anambra State
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(1), em0054, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8425
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted basically to evaluate the noise dB(A) levels in primary and secondary schools within Otolo area of Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of eight (8) randomly selected schools (four primary and four secondary schools) were assessed. Noise levels in the classrooms and school playgrounds of the schools were measured using a factory-calibrated sound level meter. Results of this study revealed that the noise levels of classrooms and playgrounds of the schools selected for this study were in the range of 78-92 dB(A) and 61-97 dB(A) respectively. These levels were significantly above the World Health Organization’s recommended classroom and outdoor/playground noise levels. This study creates awareness on the implications of noise in schools and learning centers, and also promotes a simple method for regular assessment of the noise levels in these environments.
Research Article
Challenges Facing Older Adults during the COVID-19 Outbreak
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(1), em0059, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8457
ABSTRACT: As COVID-19 rapidly spread at the globe, it has attracted significant attention and brought unprecedented efforts, resulting in stops of routine activities and changes in day-to-day behavioral patterns of the public. To mitigate its impact on health bodies and systems, societies, and economies, many countries have adopted nonpharmacological preventive procedures such as social or spatial distancing, using protective gloves and masks, as well as frequently handwashing; these have been extensively implemented. However, preventive procedures aimed at protecting the healthcare systems have side-effects that might have a big impact on the elderly’s life. In this article, we highlight the main challenges facing older adults during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the importance of preventive measures in the protection of elderly health and containing the outbreak of COVID-19, they will undoubtedly have short and long term consequences for the well-being and mental health of the older adults.
Letter to Editor
Mobile Healthcare Technology for People with Disabilities amid the COVID-19 pandemic
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(1), em0060, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8551
ABSTRACT: People with disabilities are often deprived of their rights for quality healthcare during an emergency. The reasons for the deprivations are due to a lack of specialized healthcare that can cater for their health essentials and due to a lack of policies that protect their health rights. However, people with disabilities should be safeguarded since they tend to be the most vulnerable during times of crisis. In this regard, technology can empower people with disabilities through the use of designed mobile healthcare technologies or mhealth apps that are specialized for their health needs which they can use during the global emergency.
Research Article
Evaluation of Indoor Radiation Hazard on Worker & Public Health in Mitford Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(1), em0061, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8576
ABSTRACT: Objective: Radiation workers in nuclear Medicine institute are handling unsealed radioactive materials for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of patients and thus radiation hazard on workers and public health in nuclear medicine is high comparing to other departments of the hospital. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the radiation hazard on workers and public at the indoor places of the Institute of Nuclear Medicine & Allied Sciences (INMAS) Mitford, Sir Salimullah Medical College and Hospital Campus based on the real-time radiation monitoring data. Methods: The radiation monitoring was performed using a real-time portable digital radiation monitoring device. This real-time digital portable radiation monitoring device meets all European CE standards as well as the American “FCC 15 standard”. The portable digital radiation monitoring device was placed at 1 meter above the ground on tripod and data acquisition time for each monitoring point (MP) was 1 hour. 24 MPs were selected for collection of radiation dose rates at different indoor locations of INMAS, Mitford hospital from May-June 2019. The real-time dose rate also monitored at 1 meter distance from injected patients in the patient’s waiting room after injecting 99mTc & 131I. Results: The measured dose rates were ranged from 0.181 ± 0.057 μSv.h-1 to 2.247 ± 0.685 μSv.h-1 with an average of 0.463 ± 0.695 μSv.h-1. The annual effective dose to the radiation worker and public were varied from 0.279 ± 0.089 mSv to 3.481±1.061 mSv with an average of 0.717 ±1.077mSv. Excess life-time cancer risk (ELCR) of worker and public were evaluated based on annual effective dose and varied from 1.113 Χ 10-3 to 1.385 Χ 10-2. Conclusion: Real-time radiation monitoring at indoor places of nuclear medicine facilities are required for detection of contamination in the workplace. So this study is needed to keep the indoor environment free from radiation hazard and thereby improving the worker and public health.
Review Article
A Rapid Review on Domestic Violence as a Silent Consequence in Corona Time: A Double Pandemic
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(1), em0062, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8577
ABSTRACT: Objectives: Domestic violence refers to the violent and domineering behavior of a family member against a member or other members of the same family, which some environmental factors play a role in creating and exacerbating. According to the current situation, domestic violence is likely to create or exacerbate. The aim of the present study is to determine domestic violence and the factors influencing its occurrence in the COVID-19 era.
Methods: This study was conducted in 1399 with designing of the steps: study question, search, which in databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Springer, Elsevier, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Web of Science, Magiran with keywords like “Domestic Violence”, “Quaid 19”, “Consequences”, “Crisis”, “Related Factors” and their English equivalents. After identifying the relevant studies from 2002 to 2020, and after screening the title, the selection of studies was performed. From the 72 abstract and full texts, 8 studies were utilized in the findings and discussion section.
Results: Consequences of the COVID-19 virus can be a risk factor for the creation or exacerbation of domestic violence. Social distancing, unemployment, and job loss, and fear of infection by the virus are all important factors that can be sources for increasing anxiety and stress in people, which can eventually lead to domestic violence during this time.
Conclusion: Considering different articles about the factors affecting the creation or exacerbation of domestic violence and COVID-19, it is inferred that COVID-19 can be a risk factor for domestic violence.
Letter to Editor
Development of Preparedness Competencies in Basic Education Science Curriculum: An Insight from the COVID-19 Global Outbreak
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(1), em0063, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8578
ABSTRACT: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused an extraordinary crisis that affects educational systems. This editorial letter calls for the development of preparedness competencies as part of the basic education science curriculum. It discusses the background from which the current call is hinged, contemporary place of preparedness competencies in the basic education science curriculum, and possible actions for curriculum development. This call hopes to open windows of opportunity for the consideration of preparedness competencies as part of the basic education science curriculum.
Review Article
Knowledge on the Pathogenesis and New Diagnosing Techniques Approach for Low SARS-CoV-2 Testing Rates: A Case Study of Nigeria
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(1), em0064, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/9145
ABSTRACT: SARS-CoV-2 (novel coronavirus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019) is a beta (β-) sub-class of the coronavirus which has caused more harm to live than expected. SARS-CoV-2 which was declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020, has caused governments globally to declare and implement the “lock down” policy for its citizen, including Nigeria with a large population in Africa. The country National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) made it known the testing methods adopted by them are not effective at curtaining the large population of her citizens. Our main goal in this review is to focus on the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and new diagnostic techniques approaches that can be adopted in Nigeria. A total of 88,432 testing has been carried out by the NCDC, with 14,554 confirmed cases in 200 million populations. Although the SARS-CoV-2 test adopted by the NCDC has been on the molecular testing using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and antibody tests using blood, which has many demerits. We therefore recommend the NCDC should approach new diagnostic techniques like use of saliva samples and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Conclusively, when these methods are considered, testing rates will greatly improve.
Research Article
Health Impacts of a Traditional Illicit Brew (Kaanga) Consumed in Meru County, Kenya
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(1), em0065, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/9146
ABSTRACT: Kaanga brew is a common illicit liquor from Meru county in Kenya. Popularity of this brew has been growing and is religiously passed down from one generation to the next. The substrates, preparation process and additives used in making it are unhygienic and toxic. As a result, numerous social and health effects have stemmed from its consumption. This study aimed at analyzing the health impacts arising from consumption of Kaanga brew in Meru county, Kenya. A cross-sectional design of study was employed. The research tools used included questionnaires, interviews and observations. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze and present the findings. The results indicated that popularity of this brew was mainly because it was cheaper than other alcoholic beverages. Its consumption was projected to continue for a long period, if strict intervention measures are not taken. The additives used, such as battery acid, methanol and dry cells were indeed toxic for human consumption. Several social effects which had public health effects (such as irresponsible sex activities), by extension were experienced from the consumers. Kaanga brew had significantly more chances (P > 0.05) of causing health effects compared to the other brews. Some of the direct health conditions arising from its consumption include loss of vision, memory and appetite, inflammation and regular stomach upsets. 80% of the respondents had witnessed or heard of a death case caused by the brew.
Letter to Editor
Self-medication and its Consequences during & after the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Global Health Problem
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(1), em0066, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/9308
ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory tract infection that emerged from China in December 2019 and is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Due to the airborne nature of its transmission, COVID-19 spread to the rest of the world rapidly. Thus, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic. This paper evaluated the factors that lead to self-medication in people suffering from respiratory tract infections such as COVID-19, and the consequences of practicing self-medication using antimicrobial agents. Most of the signs and symptoms of COVID-19 are also seen in infections such as malaria, flu, and the common cold. For this reason, and also due to poor healthcare-seeking behaviour, most people tend to self-medicate using medicines that are known to be effective against malaria, common cold, and COVID-19. Among the commonly used medicines in the practice of self-medication include antibacterials, antimalarials, and antivirals. Some vitamins such as vitamin C boost the immune system enabling it to provide effective defence mechanisms against microbes. However, self-medication may pose consequences such as the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms, hypersensitivity reactions as well as dose-dependent toxicities viz dermatoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and hepatoxicity. Infectious diseases caused by antimicrobial-resistant microbes are difficult and, in some instances, impossible to treat thereby leading to increased morbidity and mortality among infected people. Consequently, antimicrobial resistance poses another global public health problem and requires a multisectoral approach to curb. It is our recommendation that all governments ensure that there are adequate medicines and efficient human resources in healthcare facilities as well as sufficient public awareness to prevent people from seeking self-medication.