EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Keyword: health policy

6 results found.

Research Article
Pediatrics Hospital Care in China Before and After Policy Change: A Case Study
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0089, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11261
ABSTRACT: Worldwide, healthcare policy change ranks among the top three issues in the public’s consciousness. This study introduces a case study of pediatric hospitalizations at one hospital in Northern China. It seeks to assess whether pediatric hospitalization access, costs, and costs structures favorably changed after selected health policy reforms were implemented in China.
A census of all hospital pediatric discharge data from 2015 to 2018 were collected from a general public tertiary hospital in Northern China. Using generalized linear regression, changes in charges for length of stay, daily charges, total charges per discharge, and drug charges and medical service fees as a percent of total charges were analyzed as a function of two independent variables - policy changes regarding the merger of two health insurance programs, and the zero-markup drug pricing policy. These variables were included as dummy variables for the pre-and-post change periods. The covariates used included patient age, sex, and the year.
After the policy implementation, significant decreases (P<.01) were found in the length of the hospital stay (-0.49 days) and drug and medical charges (-7.63%) as a percent of total charges. A significant decrease also occurred (P<.01) in the number and percent of pediatric patients served who were self-pay after the merger of the NCMS insurance plan into the URBMI. Drug costs as a proportion of total costs also decreased significantly (P<.01). Thus, the findings revealed that the zero-markup drug pricing policy was associated with a significant decrease (P<.01) in the mean percentage markup for drug charges (P<.01).
Accordingly, both health policy changes were associated with positive effects on pediatric healthcare expenditures, and access. This research suggests that as these two policies are fully implemented at public tertiary hospitals throughout China, pediatric hospital care may become even more accessible and drugs less costly.
Editorial
Review of the Lessons from the Mental Health Care in a Public Health Context Short Course: Australia Awards Africa
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(2), em0068, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9369
ABSTRACT: The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends human resource development as a key strategy to promote global mental health. The optimal approach to building capacity in global mental health care requires partnerships between professional resources in high-income countries and promising health-related institutions in low- and middle-income countries. In this paper, we briefly describe the objectives of one of such initiatives, the Australia Awards Short Course titled, ‘Mental Health Care in a Public Health Context’, sponsored by the Australian Government, share our experience and reflections as participants in the program, and highlight key lessons relevant for scale-up of mental health care in low-middle income countries in Africa.
Research Article
A Planetary Health Perspective to Decarbonising Public Hospitals in Ireland: A Health Policy Report
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2021, 5(2), em0067, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/9368
ABSTRACT: Background: Decarbonisation refers to the process by which countries, individuals or other entities aim to achieve zero fossil carbon emissions through reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including procurement, energy and buildings, pharmaceuticals, transport, and waste which impacts public health. Preliminary findings on decarbonisation in healthcare systems suggest that further research is required.
Aims: This research was undertaken to explore the opportunities and barriers of decarbonisation of public hospitals within the ‘climate health’ planetary health boundary in the Republic of Ireland.
Methodology: A literature review was used in conjunction with semi-structured qualitative interviews to explore barriers and opportunities of decarbonisation of Irish healthcare sector. The purposive sampling for the qualitative interviews resulted in the selection of five key decision-makers within cross-sector fields including environmental, public health, management and transport.
Results: Themes emerged which reflected the cross-cutting planetary health principle. Barriers such as financial incentives and the requirement for a transdisciplinary approach were raised. The need for preparing the healthcare sector through adaptation and mitigation of the effects of climate change was also highlighted, as was the importance of leadership within the hospital from all sectors.
Recommendations: The findings emerging from this novel research through a planetary health lens can be used to further inform the ‘Climate Action Plan’ in the Republic of Ireland, with adaption to other healthcare sectors internationally, in order to ensure investment within the health sector in preparation for climate change.
Research Article
Demystifying Trends and Future Implications of Cardiovascular Disease Burden in India. From Rhetoric to Reality and Policy to Action by Targeting Social Determinants of Health to advance Health Equity and Reduce Global Disease Burden
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2018, 2(2), 09, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/3924
ABSTRACT: Socioeconomic determinants of health assume great significance in Indian context due to its diversity. We aim to appraise the current national level health initiatives aimed at decreasing the cardio vascular disease (CVD) burden in India in context with established conceptual frameworks for advancing integrated health and value-based care. Literature review for interpretive and qualitative observational analysis was undertaken to assay various healthcare constructs affecting health policy formulation and implementation. Indian research has focused on risk prevention aspects of CVD rather than risk behavior modification through policy implementations. Future interventions should focus on formulating ingenious strategies to get a grip on crucial social challenges to translate gains in measurable units involving all stakeholders. Our study elaborates and enumerates various measures undertaken by the government of India (GOI) till date for CVD risk reduction. Future effective public-health interventions in India must incorporate complex socioeconomic measures to confront major elements of health inequalities.
Research Article
Traditional Health Care Systems and Herbal Medicines
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2017, 1(1), 03, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph.201703
ABSTRACT:

The age-old traditional health care practices are still relevant and are followed by communities across the countries. India's contribution remains exemplary in the growth of traditional health care systems. The present study reviews the strength of traditional health care systems and medicinal plants of India that has been contributing in health care not only from time immemorial but also makes it numero uno choice of community for curing many chronic diseases. An extensive literature survey was undertaken for compilation of information on the traditional systems of medicine in India, which include Ayurveda, Unani, homeopathy and Siddha. The careful investigation of information reveals that Ayurveda is one of the oldest systems of medicine evolved in India. It is a holistic system of treatment, which is an amalgamation of regular diet, use of medicine and following practices like exercise and behavior. The contribution of plants, as raw material for making medical formulations, is significant in the Indian systems of medicine, and over 6,500 species of plants are known to occur in India those are used by various streams of traditional health care practitioners. Attempts made by the Government of India in enriching and managing these age-old health care systems are also discussed.

Research Article
A Snapshot of Racial and Geographic Distribution of Lung and Bronchus Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Mississippi, 2008-2012
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2017, 1(1), 01, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph.201701
ABSTRACT: To identify disproportionate burden for lung and bronchus cancer incidence and mortality rates in Mississippi from 2008-2012. Lung and bronchus cancer remains a major public health burden in the United States and Mississippi. We examined data from 2008 to 2012 for lung cancer incidence and mortality rates by demographics (age, sex, race) and geographic (Public Health Districts, and urban/rural) characteristics to identify potential health disparities. Data were extracted from the Mississippi Cancer Registry (MCR). It represents age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 population to the 2000 U.S. standard population and 95% confidence intervals. During 2008-2012, 12,579 people (overall rate of 78.63 per 100,000) were diagnosed with lung cancer in Mississippi. Overall, Whites in urban areas had a higher incidence (80.9) rate and Blacks had a higher mortality (62.94) rate. Based on the findings of age, sex, race, and geographic disparities, it is suggested that there is a need for more effective community-based interventions and preventative measures for cultural sensitive groups to reduce the burden of lung cancer in Mississippi. It also helps to coordinate a more comprehensive approach for the control of cancer planning efforts.