Volume 2, Issue 2, 2018
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2018, 2(2), 05, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/90840
ABSTRACT: This study investigates the level of access to healthcare among the elderly population in California. A total of 21,055 members of the adult population, ages from 18 to 65 participated in this survey. The majority of participants, about 61%, reported they are generally in good or a very good health condition compared to 39% who reported that they are in fair or very poor condition. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate access to healthcare services among the adult population in the context of insurance status. Lack of access to healthcare services among the population is a societal and moral concern nationwide and there is a need to identify common characteristics among the targeted demographic and provide an opportunity for prevention and action.
Trends in the Prevalence and Awareness of High Cholesterol among Adults in Mississippi, United States
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2018, 2(2), 06, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/92010
ABSTRACT: Elevated level of blood cholesterol (total cholesterol >240 mg/dL) is one of the major risk factor for heart disease, which is the leading cause of death in the United States. This challenge makes public health organizations and their partners to design programs that will reduce the prevalence of high cholesterol by increasing public awareness and screening. The purpose of this study was to determine trends in the prevalence and awareness of high cholesterol among adults in Mississippi. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System(BRFSS) of 2015, a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage probability sample survey of the Mississippi residents, noninstitutionalized population examined the prevalence and trend of high cholesterol according to sex and ethnicity for 5039 (n=1703 male and n=3336 females) adults aged 18 to 65 and above. The trends in the percentage of adults screened for elevated level of cholesterol and its awareness was examined using t-test statistical and frequency distribution to determine the percentage differences in the groups. About 38.6% male and 38.3% females had high cholesterol when screened. In addition, 41.9% of non-Hispanic whites was aware of high cholesterol which is higher when compared to 34.2% non-Hispanic blacks. These findings indicated an increased level of awareness of high cholesterol among non-Hispanic whites than non-Hispanic blacks. More attention should be focused on cholesterol screening and awareness, specifically among non-Hispanic blacks in Mississippi.
Environmental Characteristics Related to Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program Implementation
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2018, 2(2), 07, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/92007
ABSTRACT: This study examined environmental characteristics including demographic variables, facilities, and perceived support as contributors of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) implementation. Physical education teachers (N=306) from public, private, and other schools participated. The state of residence was the only demographic characteristic that predicted CSPAP implementation. Bike racks and total facilities were significant among facility predictors. Supportive administration and administrator’s modeling physical activity (PA) also significantly contributed to CSPAP implementation. CSPAP implementation was highly associated with specific environmental characteristics that promote PA. These findings suggest that changes can be made to the school environment to facilitate PA opportunities.
Public Health and Well-being Innovation in the Natural Environment Sector: Lessons from the UK and Finland
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2018, 2(2), 08, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/3904
ABSTRACT: Thirty-one ethnographic interviews were conducted with health and well-being sector businesses to examine the dynamics of innovation in the UK (Cornwall) and across Finland. The Nordic countries are at the leading edge of these types of public health nature-based interventions, consequently, Finland was chosen as a comparator to the UK. We found that the construction of natural environment based services for health and well-being follows a five-step model: (1) Services are specifically designed for individuals’ needs; (2) These services are based around routine behaviours of that individual and their personal and social habits; (3) This creates a process of normalisation that relates to former states of health prior to being ill; (4) These routines generally function at a habitual level if they are to be of use on a daily basis (we are not conscious of all of our actions all the time); and (5) nature is used to embed these new routines because it allows access to the latent forms of thought, not ones that require direct conscious learning. We found this emergent process closely resembles Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of habitus. A number of health and well-being businesses have moved towards mixed models of service provision– combining profit-making activities in the tourism and leisure markets with care services to create a sustainable service model in response to increasing pressures on funding sources. However, more still needs to be done in terms of training for public health and well-being businesses if this service model is to become financially sustainable for all.
Demystifying Trends and Future Implications of Cardiovascular Disease Burden in India. From Rhetoric to Reality and Policy to Action by Targeting Social Determinants of Health to advance Health Equity and Reduce Global Disease Burden
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2018, 2(2), 09, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/3924
ABSTRACT: Socioeconomic determinants of health assume great significance in Indian context due to its diversity. We aim to appraise the current national level health initiatives aimed at decreasing the cardio vascular disease (CVD) burden in India in context with established conceptual frameworks for advancing integrated health and value-based care. Literature review for interpretive and qualitative observational analysis was undertaken to assay various healthcare constructs affecting health policy formulation and implementation. Indian research has focused on risk prevention aspects of CVD rather than risk behavior modification through policy implementations. Future interventions should focus on formulating ingenious strategies to get a grip on crucial social challenges to translate gains in measurable units involving all stakeholders. Our study elaborates and enumerates various measures undertaken by the government of India (GOI) till date for CVD risk reduction. Future effective public-health interventions in India must incorporate complex socioeconomic measures to confront major elements of health inequalities.
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2018, 2(2), 10, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/3925
ABSTRACT: A power calculation for a study with a quantitative outcome requires information on the outcome distribution under the alternative hypothesis. Researchers face challenges when they concisely specify alternative distributions in genetic studies because power depends on genotype frequencies and the average effect of each genotype. In GWAS, investigators evaluate hundreds of thousands of associations; therefore it is unrealistic to specify gene frequencies and gene effects for each test and some simplification is needed. Software packages are available to calculate power, but many of them have limited flexibility and / or may have a steep learning curve. In this review, we describe to researchers and graduate students the essentials of a power calculation for testing for an association between a quantitative trait and genotypes. In addition, we provide them with the codes of the different available software packages—free and commercial—to calculate this power. The calculations can be carried out using virtually any computer language that computes the cumulative distribution function of a non-central F-distribution.