EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Volume 6, Issue 1, 2022

Research Article
Pediatrics Hospital Care in China Before and After Policy Change: A Case Study
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0089, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11261
ABSTRACT: Worldwide, healthcare policy change ranks among the top three issues in the public’s consciousness. This study introduces a case study of pediatric hospitalizations at one hospital in Northern China. It seeks to assess whether pediatric hospitalization access, costs, and costs structures favorably changed after selected health policy reforms were implemented in China.
A census of all hospital pediatric discharge data from 2015 to 2018 were collected from a general public tertiary hospital in Northern China. Using generalized linear regression, changes in charges for length of stay, daily charges, total charges per discharge, and drug charges and medical service fees as a percent of total charges were analyzed as a function of two independent variables - policy changes regarding the merger of two health insurance programs, and the zero-markup drug pricing policy. These variables were included as dummy variables for the pre-and-post change periods. The covariates used included patient age, sex, and the year.
After the policy implementation, significant decreases (P<.01) were found in the length of the hospital stay (-0.49 days) and drug and medical charges (-7.63%) as a percent of total charges. A significant decrease also occurred (P<.01) in the number and percent of pediatric patients served who were self-pay after the merger of the NCMS insurance plan into the URBMI. Drug costs as a proportion of total costs also decreased significantly (P<.01). Thus, the findings revealed that the zero-markup drug pricing policy was associated with a significant decrease (P<.01) in the mean percentage markup for drug charges (P<.01).
Accordingly, both health policy changes were associated with positive effects on pediatric healthcare expenditures, and access. This research suggests that as these two policies are fully implemented at public tertiary hospitals throughout China, pediatric hospital care may become even more accessible and drugs less costly.
Letter to Editor
Towards National Health Recovery: Call for Intensified Science-based Information Campaigns on Vaccines against COVID-19 in the Philippines
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0090, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11262
ABSTRACT: Vaccine refusal has been a recurring situation that transpires both in mainstream and social media for over a decade even up to this day. With the goal towards national health recovery, this editorial letter calls for science-based information campaigns on vaccines against COVID-19 in all possible venues. It discusses the background from which the call is grounded, theoretical arguments that explain people’s intention behavior, and the importance of information campaigns. This call hopes to increase COVID-19 vaccine literacy programs and encourage high vaccine acceptance and intention among Filipinos.
Research Article
Infusing Culture into the Long-Term Care Environment to Improve Public Health and Quality-of-Life Experience
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0091, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11336
ABSTRACT: This article examines long-term care quality from a cultural perspective, using Hawaii as its locale. Discussions will center around communication and language, socialization and activities, morals, values, and beliefs. Analyzing the role culture, cultural understanding, and cultural competence plays in the long-term care environment, especially to improve public health and quality of life, ensures programs and services meet the psycho-social needs and promote health, happiness, and satisfaction for the consumer. Based on this study, suggested strategies are relevant and recommended for other US and European long-term care providers to incorporate into their organizational culture when providing long-term care services and support (LTSS).
Review Article
The Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Handbook and its Influence on Health Behaviors: A Literature Review
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0092, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11357
ABSTRACT: Objectives: The MCH handbook is a health record and home-based information tool that records and provides health information for women throughout their pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period, and about the child from the years 0-5. A literature review was conducted using current evidence-based results to determine the effectiveness of the MCH handbook
Methods: The Medline Ovid database was searched for “Maternal and Child Health Handbook”. Among the 50 results, 17 articles were found to be relevant and thus reviewed.
Results: This literature review revealed that the MCH handbook is an effective tool that positively influences the behaviours of pregnant women in regard to immunizations, breastfeeding, nutrition, child development, and illnesses. Allowing for two-way communication ensures that the health of both pregnant women and their child(ren) are taken care of at an optimal level.
Discussion: There is a need for greater collaboration between governments, the United Nations, donor agencies and NGOs. This will ensure that every mother, regardless of her culture and socioeconomic class, is educated and empowered well enough to positively impact both the health of her own, and her child(ren)’s.
Research Article
Trends and Drivers of Refugees in Africa
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0093, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11379
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Increase in refugees’ population poses great political, socio-economic and health challenges to Africa. This study aims to discuss the trends and drivers of refugees in African countries based on their country of origin.
Methods: This study utilized secondary data on the population of refugees in all African countries from 1990 to 2017 based on their countries of origin. The data utilized were compiled by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee (UNHCR) and analysed using Microsoft Excel 2019, IBM SPSS 25 and Adobe Photoshop CS6.
Results: Seven countries account for about 66.3% of the refugee population in Africa within 1990 to 2017, five of which are in East Africa. The trend in population of African refugees from 1990 to 2017 can be divided into four phases. Phase one, a sharp decline in refugee population from 1990 till 1992, 1994 till 1997; phase two, a sharp rise in population of refugees’ from 1992 till 1994; phase three, a relatively stable period from 1998 till 2011 and phase four, an acute rise from 2011 till 2017 where it peaks. The drivers of African refugee migration are climate change, natural disasters, economic hardship, and violence and tensions.
Conclusion: The refugee population over three decades has been on the rise with occasional periods of decline. This poses great socio-economic and health challenges to the refugees as well as the host countries themselves. It is therefore necessary that the government and other concerned stakeholders create solutions to the causes of this increase in refugee population.
Letter to Editor
Biodiversity Conservation: A Preventive Tool for Epidemics and Pandemics
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0094, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11497
ABSTRACT: Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services highlights that there is a close nexus between the global health pandemics and the biodiversity. The COVID-19 pandemic has clearly indicated the importance of environmental health. Seeing the advancement of scientific field, it is clear that there is some link between the biodiversity and spread of outbreaks of epidemics and pandemics. Interestingly, preservation of biodiversity has been recognized as an important step to control the disease outbreaks since last one year. If biodiversity is well managed and conserved, it will act as a barrier against the spill-over of infectious diseases.
Letter to Editor
COVID-19 Vaccine and Vaccination Misinformation and Disinformation: Repositioning Our Role as Educators in Pandemic Times
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0095, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11498
ABSTRACT: We often encounter misleading claims, some of which have potential to influence decisions we make in our daily lives. Many people from all walks of life, even the most schooled, fall prey to the traps of misinformation and disinformation. How do such delusions enter our knowledge base and inform our public opinions and actions? I discuss in this editorial article the bases that underlie the issues of misinformation and disinformation that plague current COVID-19 vaccine and vaccination efforts. Such issues have a philosophical base anchored on the information processing theories and psychological base linked to our cognitive tendencies. I reflect in the end on our primary responsibility as teachers in these issues. I conclude that metacognition or a knowledge of our thinking, if we mindfully dare to pursue it, can help stimulate an enlightened perspective to ourselves that, with our vast influence as educators, may illuminate the perspectives of others.
Research Article
Twitter Voices: Twitter Users’ Sentiments and Emotions About COVID-19 Vaccination within the United States
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0096, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11499
ABSTRACT: Introduction: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has negatively impacted society as a whole. Vaccination became the only reliable solution to overcome the severity of this pandemic. A critical factor to achieve an adequate vaccination coverage is by improving public confidence in immunization. Social media plays an important role in reflecting public perception towards certain topics, such as COVID-19 vaccination. This study aims to evaluate U.S. Twitter users’ sentiments and emotions towards COVID-19 vaccination, and the changes experienced before and after vaccine rollout.
Methods: COVID-19 vaccine related tweets were collected from Twitter’s Application Programming Interface. We analyzed tweets from March 11, 2020, to May 17, 2021, and divide them into two groups; before and after the first vaccine was implemented in the U.S. Sentiment analysis, negative binomial regression and linear regression models were used for inferential analysis.
Results: A total of 19,654 tweets were extracted. From those, 10,374 and 9,280 tweets were posted before and after COVID-19 vaccine was launched in U.S., respectively. A statistically significant difference was evidenced between the two groups when comparing each individual emotion, and positive and negative sentiments, except for joy. Lastly, a statistically significant increase of the sentiment score in the post COVID-19 vaccine group compared to the pre COVID-19 vaccine group was evidenced.
Conclusion: Our findings evidenced that public perception of the COVID-19 vaccine has positively changed over time and suggest that the terms “trials” and “vaccination”, which were associated to trust, could potentially be used to create targeted educational and promotional schemes to achieve a better vaccination coverage rate.
Case Report
Assessment of Liquid Waste Handling Practice of Addis Ketema and its Impact on Shankela River, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0097, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11500
ABSTRACT: Addis Ketema is one of the ten sub-cities of Addis Ababa, where the biggest market and the biggest bus station in Ethiopia are located. The liquid waste that is generated from this sub-city is not being handled properly. The objective of this study is to assess the liquid waste handling practice of Addis Ketema and its impact on Shankela River. The data is collected by observation, interviewing garage employees, and interviewing residents. In addition, a triplicate water sample was collected from four sampling sites of Shankela River by using grab sampling. The physicochemical characteristics of the river such as temperature, pH, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, biological oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand were analyzed to determine the impact of the poor liquid waste handling practice of the sub-city on the river. The main reasons that contributed to the poor liquid waste handling practice of Addis Ketema are the discharge of untreated effluents from small and large scale factories, the migration of people from different parts of the country, the poor liquid waste handling practice of residents, the poor solid waste handling practice of Merkato and Autobis Tera, the poor liquid waste handling practice of condominium’s and the poor liquid waste handling practice of garages. The interview result shows that out of 81garage employees, only 43 percent have a perception about the health and environmental impacts that come with the poor handling of garage effluent. The questioners that are collected from residents show that compared to other zones, zone 3 has poor liquid waste handling practice. Zone 3 is the third zone with 61 out of 100 residents in having low perception about environmental pollution. It is the first zone in having large number of residents, with 87 out of 100 residents, to be affected with water-borne diseases. It is the third zone with 62 out of 100 residents in dumping their liquid waste improperly. It is the last zone with 12 out of 100 residents in handling the generated liquid waste properly and it is the second zone with 45 out of 100 residents in using bottled water over the water that is supplied by Addis Ababa water and sewerage authority. The physicochemical characteristics of Shankela River indicate that even though the river is polluted by other factors before entering into the sub-city, the poor liquid waste handling practice of the sub-city is affecting the river even more by increasing the pollutant load. Developing sanitary infrastructures, Awareness creation, enforcing environmental laws are some of the methods that can be employed to improve the poor liquid waste handling practice of Addis Ketema.
Research Article
The Effect of Electromagnetic Field of Mobile Phone on Hand Grip and Shoulder Strengths
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0098, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11501
ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between holding a mobile phone in the non-dominant hand and the hand grip, the shoulder abduction and flexion strengths on the dominant hand side.
Materials and Methods: This is an observational study. The study was conducted between November 15, 2019 - November 29, 2019 in 61 adults aged 18-30 years in Izmir, Turkey. Three repeated measurements of hand grip strength, shoulder abduction and shoulder flexion strength in dominant hand / on the shoulder of the dominant hand were compared. Measurements were as follows: In the non-dominant hand when there is no mobile phone (Measurement 1); In the non-dominant hand when there is a switched off mobile phone in (Measurement 2); In the non-dominant hand when there is a mobile phone on in standby mode (Measurement 3). In statistical analysis, student t test and one way or two-way analysis of variance were used for repeated measurements. A p value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: There was no significant difference between the first, second and third measurement results in terms of mean grip strength (for each one p>0.05). However, the mean values of shoulder abduction strength and shoulder flexion strength were lower in the third measurements compared to the first measurements (for each one p ≤0.05).
Conclusion: There is evidence that the contact with the mobile phone in the nondominant hand will cause an acute decrease in muscle strength, especially in the shoulder girdle. Further studies in large populations on the subject of this study are recommended.
Research Article
The Impact of COVID-19 on the Health-Related Quality of Life of Individuals Living in Scottish Communities with High Infection Rates
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0099, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11502
ABSTRACT: A mixed method sequential study explored the impact of COVID-19 by gaining an understanding of how the pandemic has impacted individual experiences as well as examining if these experiences existed across a wider population of residents. Previous research suggests that socio-economic factors have exacerbated the adverse impact of the pandemic, therefore this study sought to explore this, as well as attempt to identify what these implications could mean for COVID recovery.
The study was carried out in two phases. In phase one, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with eight participants, transcribed verbatim and an interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted. Five themes emerged: self-evaluation and reflection, gratitude, uncertainty, social isolation, and lack of faith in the government were identified. In phase two, standardised measures were administered to assess elicited themes via an online questionnaire. Correlation and multiple regression analyses showed a strong relationship between social isolation, gratitude, uncertainty and HRQoL, with social isolated being a significant predictor.
Despite the limitation of a low variance, evidence of a strong correlation amongst disabled and low-income participants experiencing higher levels of social isolation was found. Uncertainty and levels of gratitude were also found to be correlated with social isolation and HRQoL. Therefore, addressing social isolation should be a priority for mental health services and should influence any future restrictions that may be implemented in a ‘third wave’ or future pandemic.
Research Article
Prioritization of Factors that Determine Medical Practice Styles Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0100, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11558
ABSTRACT: The medical profession has maintained its importance throughout human history. Communication between physician and patient is one of the most important issues that determine the success of the medical profession. In this success, physician behaviors and styles play a determining role in the practice of medicine. The aim of this study is to determine the factor weights affecting the practice styles in medicine and to prioritize them. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used in the study. The AHP technique is helpful for the decision maker as it prioritizes the factors based on their weights using a pairwise comparison matrix. The factor comparison data are obtained from a total of 22 clinician specialist physicians. According to the results of the application, the factors determining the practice style are Professional Experience (31.9%), Medical Education (21.8%), Patient and Disease (18.2%), Personality (11.5%), Institution (8.8%), and Family and Social Environment (7.8%), respectively. The concept of medical styles aimed to contribute to the development of the physicians’ own styles and to create awareness. It is expected to contribute to medical education and professional development.
Research Article
Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, and Misconceptions towards COVID-19 among Sub-Sahara Africans
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0101, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11559
ABSTRACT: Background: COVID-19 is a viral disease that can be transmitted from one person to another. The virus was first reported in Wuhan, China in 2019 and Nigeria recorded the first case of COVID-19 in Sub-Sahara Africa in 2020. The right knowledge, attitudes, and practices are essential in curbing the spread of the virus. Hence, the study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, practice, and misconception of Sub-Sahara Africa towards COVID-19 and identifying the factors associated with COVID-19.
Method: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among respondents from Sub-Sahara Africa from December 2020 to June 2021. This study involved respondents from six African countries, the responses were gotten from Kenya and Sudan (representing East Africa) Nigeria and Ghana (representing West Africa), Cameroon (representing Central Africa), and Malawi (representing Southern Africa). Data collected was analyzed using IBM SPSS version 26.0.
Results: A total of 913 respondents participated in this study with the majority of the age group coming from 21-30 (70.9%). The result indicates that the majority have a good level of knowledge (89.9%) and attitude (97.7%) with an insufficient level of practice (61%). Also, the majority of the respondents had an acceptable level of misconception (84%). 67% of the respondents believe that 5G causes COVID-19. The majority of the respondents reckon that everyone should wear a facemask (90.3%) and that alcohol does not cure COVID-19 (85.9%).
Conclusions: The study suggests that Sub-Sahara Africans have adequate knowledge and Attitude without sufficient practice towards COVID-19. Improved policies, awareness and sensitization campaigns should be carried out by government and social media companies to ensure adequate practice towards COVID-19. Furthermore, these findings should be considered by policymakers to implement interventions for outbreaks.
Review Article
Psychosocial Interventions to Enhance Treatment Adherence to Lifestyle Changes in Cardiovascular Disease: A Review of the Literature 2011-2021
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0102, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11582
ABSTRACT: Patients with cardiovascular diseases face difficulty to adhere to non-pharmaceutical treatment recommendations and consequently face an increased recurrence rate, re-hospitalizations and poor quality of life. Our review of the literature over the past decade aims to be a useful tool to the enlightening of health care providers and health educators about the interventions that enhance treatment adherence to lifestyle modification. PubMed, PsycLIT, Cochrane Library, Scopus, CINAhl, PSYinfo, Web of Science, and Central databases were searched to identify articles published within the decade 2011-2021 and 42 studies met the criteria for inclusion. Our study revealed many different approaches to inconsistency in life style prescriptions focusing mainly on psychological and social factors. Interventions like increasing of knowledge, joining cardiac rehabilitation programs, development of a therapeutic alliance, behavioral techniques that reinforce self-efficacy and motivation, use of technology as reminder and creating a support network are not only effective but also low-cost programs that will play a decisive role in treatment effectiveness. Improving treatment adherence to lifestyle recommendations requires a multidimensial approach by an interdisciplinary team of health professionals. Investing in interventions that improve attitudes, beliefs, readiness and self-care, can prove to be very rewarding for patients, health and economics. The present literature review will assist health professionals and educators create experiential educational and behavioral programs that promote the adoption of healthy behavior and help maintain adherence over time. Future research is required for identifying the most effective interventions based on different lifestyles practices and cultural factors.
Research Article
Mental Distress Associated with Air Quality Vulnerability During COVID-19
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0103, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11674
ABSTRACT: Yakima County, Washington is an area with prolonged exposure to poor air quality (PM 2.5) and has been one of the hardest hit counties in cases per capita of COVID-19 in the Western US. The physical health impacts of poor air quality exposure and COVID-19 have been well documented. However, the mental health impacts of these concurrent exposures are unknown. A pilot study (n=232) surveyed households using random-digit-dialing (RDD) in Yakima, County in Dec 2020-Jan 2021 to understand the spread of COVID-19 in vulnerable communities. Air quality behaviors and contexts including home filtration systems and use of community shelters during poor air quality events were measured. Mental distress was measured by the John Hopkins’s Mental Distress COVID-19 Community Response Survey. Descriptive data analysis along with Spearman’s rank correlation analysis were performed. Nearly half of the sample (45.3%) did not have access to air quality mitigation measures in their homes. The majority of the sample (54.3%) reported wanting to access clean air shelters during major air quality events such as the smoke and wildfire season of 2020. Participants who were unable to mitigate poor air quality in their households as well as those who were unable to access community clean air shelters were observed to have higher levels of mental distress (p<.05). This study adds to the body of evidence that environmental exposures play a significant role in mental health and that compounding impacts of climate change should be studied more in depth. Household interventions should be explored as COVID-19 has brought community protection measures to a halt, while climate change induced natural disasters will only increase in the future.
Research Article
Elimination of Vibrio Cholerae from Raw Sewage Using Chlorella Vulgaris: A Case of Chegutu Waste Reticulation, Zimbabwe
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0104, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11724
ABSTRACT: The research was aimed at eliminating Vibrio cholerae from raw sewage collected from home spills of Chegutu, Zimbabwe. An experimental approach was used in which homogenized raw sewage, inoculated with Chlorella vulgaris culture was distributed equally into three tanks and left to stand for three weeks. Samples were extracted from the three tanks and tested for the presence of Vibrio cholerae and physico-chemical parameters once in seven days. Results showed a continuous decrease in the quantities of Vibrio cholerae as well as physico-chemical parameters. Vibrio cholerae was totally eliminated from the sewage within 21 days. Chlorella vulgaris can be used as a bioremediation agent to eliminate the Vibrio cholerae from sewage. The research recommends that the prototype designed from this research could be used at a large scale in the elimination of Vibrio cholerae in Municipal raw sewage.
Research Article
A Quantitative Research on the Xenophobia Examination in Terms of Psychological Resilience: Case of Istanbul
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0105, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11803
ABSTRACT: Xenophobia can be defined as negative prejudice towards strangers. It can also be defined as the hatred of foreigners. Psychological resilience is an independent source of resistance and a personality-based tendency to mitigate and overcome the effects of a stressful life. Psychological resilience has three dimensions; commitment, control, and challenge. A review of xenophobia, in terms of psychological resilience, has not been examined yet. This study examines the xenophobic opinions and attitudes of Turkish citizens living in Istanbul against more than 4 million immigrants with various legal status in Turkey in terms of psychological resilience. As a result of the study, it was observed that psychological resilience did not function as resistance against xenophobia. This result is obtained since two of the three factors representing psychological resilience strengthen the xenophobia.
Research Article
Adoption of Telemedicine During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Perspectives of Primary Healthcare Providers
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0106, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11804
ABSTRACT: Background: As the pandemic has unfolded across an array of communities worldwide, telemedicine has been promoted and scaled up to attend to and reduce person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 in the U.S. and internationally. This study examined the major barriers to adoption of telemedicine among primary healthcare providers at a primary care clinic in north Texas during the pandemic.
Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 67 primary healthcare providers at a primary care clinic in north Texas, with a 70% percent response rate (n=47). The survey collected information on perceived barriers to telemedicine adoption and experience with telemedicine in the last 12 months. In addition to descriptive statistics, multiple logistic regression was conducted to determine characteristics related to use of telemedicine in the past year. Chi-square tests were also performed to examine the relationship between the number of perceived barriers and telemedicine usage.
Results: Results revealed that the lack of reimbursement was a significant obstacle to telemedicine adoption. Plus, the number of perceived barriers to telemedicine usage was negatively associated with using telemedicine.
Conclusions: The findings suggested that the barriers to using telemedicine existed across an array of situations and that decreasing these obstacles would be critical in encouraging future telemedicine adoption among providers during and after the pandemic. This will especially be the case for primary care practices where scarce financial resources have been a traditional problem for such providers. This complicacy is likely to be amplified owing to the inimical effects of the pandemic, during and after its potential containment or successful management of it.
Research Article
Assessment of Disaster Preparedness Level of Medical Students of a University, Turkey
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0107, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/11834
ABSTRACT: Introduction: In disaster-prone countries, preparedness is a very important factor in reducing the damages of disaster. The aim of this study is to determine the disaster preparedness knowledge level of a university’s medical students and to evaluate the relationships between possible related factors and disaster preparedness knowledge.
Material and Method: This study is a cross-sectional study. The subject of research is measuring the level of disaster preparedness knowledge. The working period in which the online survey is applied is December 1-December 31, 2020. It was aimed to participate that attend the first and second grades of the medical faculty studying in the main campus of a University in Turkey. In order to compare the knowledge level of disaster preparedness among medical students, it was planned to include other faculty students as a control group. In the study, 75 medical students and 20 students from other faculties participated. A high score indicates good disaster preparedness. Chi-square, Mann Whitney U, and Kruskal Wallis were used in the statistical analyses.
Results: The median value for disaster preparedness level score for all participants was 51.0 (min: 23.0; max: 63.0). Disaster preparedness knowledge level median score (54.0 [29.0-63.0]) was higher in women than men (48.5 [23.0-62.0]) (p<0.05). The median score of disaster preparedness knowledge level (53.0 [23.0-63.0]) of the second and upper grade was higher than the median score (49.0 [29.0-62.0]) of the first-year students (p<0.05). The median score of disaster preparedness knowledge level (55.0 [34.0-62.0]) was higher than the others (49.0 [23.0-63.0]) in those living in the city where their family resides (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It can be said that the level of disaster preparedness for all participants is good. It is recommended to conduct a similar study in a larger study group.
Research Article
Assessment of Factors Influencing Non-Communicable Diseases Literacy Levels in Vihiga County–A Qualitative Cross-Sectional Study
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0108, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12021
ABSTRACT: Background: Health outcomes are closely influenced by health literacy levels. In most cases, lower health literacy levels have been found to be related to higher prevalence and incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs)–including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and other chronic respiratory diseases. Despite this wealth of knowledge on the relationship between literacy levels and NCDs, most previous studies have been on the incidence and the prevalence of NCDs.
Aims: This study therefore sought to assess the factors influencing non-communicable diseases literacy levels, Vihiga County (Kenya).
Methodology: The study used a qualitative cross-sectional study design to collect data through though questionnaires and interview guides administered through focused group discussions and key informant interviews. A sample size of 55 respondents was used in this study–mostly the IPAB project (Improving Priority and Budget Allocation to NCDs in Vihiga County) beneficiaries. The data collected from this study was coded using Microsoft excel version 25 and analyzed using statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS version 25) and inductive data analysis (IDA) for the qualitative data collected was analyzed through traditional significance test.
Results: The study reported that community health programs and initiatives on NCDs, patient support groups, culture and misinformation influence NCD literacy levels. The study findings indicate that culture and misinformation, patient support groups, and community health programmes and initiatives are three key components that need to be considered when improving NCDs literacy levels.
Conclusion: The study also concludes that IPAB project helped boost the resident’s knowledge and understanding of NCDs. The findings of this study offer critical insights to Vihiga County Government to tailor their NCDs advocacy programs to fit local context thereby enhancing the knowledge and understanding on NCDs.
Research Article
University Students Attitude Towards the National Premarital Screening Program of UAE
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2022, 6(1), em0109, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejeph/12022
ABSTRACT: Background: In Arab countries, genetic blood disorders are common and account for a major proportion of physical and mental disability. Premarital screening is one of the most successful programs in the United Arab Emirates for reducing such high prevalence.
Aim: To assess the attitudes of the university students towards premarital screening program.
Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at Ras Al Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University during the period from February to June 2020. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 265 students using systematic random sample technique. The questionnaire comprised of two parts: students’ demographic data and students’ attitude about premarital screening program.
Results: The study findings revealed that the majority of participants agreed that premarital screening program prevents disease transmission to their offspring and ensures their partner’s health. A fair number believed that if any diseases appeared on one of the couples has to be treated and rehabilitated before marriage. Most of them believed that to get married with incompatible result is a wrong decision.
Conclusion: Majority of the participants have a satisfactory attitude about premarital screening program. On the other hand, targeted educational programs regarding the importance of premarital screening program are strongly suggested to eliminate all factors that may impair the program success.