EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Volume 4, Issue 2, 2020

Editorial
Why Menstrual Health and Wellbeing Promotion should not be Sidelined in Africa’s Response to COVID-19
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0045, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8278
ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 crisis has unprecedentedly altered the course of life of majority of Africans. Menstrual health and wellbeing is a key altered aspect. The manifestation of this is apparent in the reduction/elimination of access to Menstrual Hygiene Management products and facilities, adoption of unhygienic menstrual management practices even by healthcare workers, decrease in access to menstrual-related knowledge, increase in the risk of occurrence and severity of several stress-related menstrual disorders, and a shift of public focus from menstrual health and wellbeing promotion. This disruption, in turn, leads to increased risk of predisposition to several other diseases/illnesses; prevalence of medical negligence and error, morbidity and mortality; and development lag in the continent. Prevention of these possible negative outcomes is only feasible through continued and reinforced menstrual health and wellbeing promotion facilitated by the African government and other stakeholders. This paper, thus, aim to redraw their attention to this urgent need.
Letter to Editor
The Spread of the Pandemic of Social Media Panic during the COVID-19 Outbreak
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0044, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8277
ABSTRACT: The outbreak of novel COVID-19 has opened up different issues for social media including the life-endangering consequences of supposed cures, misleading rumors, and conspiracy theories about the origin of coronavirus. These dangerous rumors circulated the world and thus paired with racism and mass fearmongering all closely linked to the new “Infomedia” systems of the present century characterized by the multiplicity of means of communication between people especially platforms of social media. The sharing of misinformation has an influence beyond the harm of the coronavirus itself. Many posts were seen related to treatments that are not proven, techniques to mitigate exposure, and infection that are either not proven and/or filled with a lot of misleading information, and instruction for individuals to stock up on supplies and food. Taking into account the present situation, there is an important need to consider and assess the awareness of the public towards the dangerous impact of the spread of misinformation in the time of the COVID-19 outbreak.
Research Article
An Investigation into Long-acting Reversible Contraception: Use, Awareness, and Associated Factors
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0039, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/7837
ABSTRACT: Objectives: We aimed to investigate the prevalence, awareness, perceived reliability, and factors associated with the use of long-acting reversible contraception among reproductive-aged, married women and men in Iran.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1520 men and women between 15-49 years of age who attended public health centers in Tehran were surveyed.
Results: About 85% of the respondents reported that they were already familiar with intrauterine contraception and 61.9% with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate. The majority of women respondents had not considered IUDs (57.2%) or DMPA (59.1%) as reliable methods. As for men, IUDs (53.8%) or DMPA (39.8%) were considered as reliable methods of contraception. Moreover, a higher number of women thought it was better to refrain from using IUDs (60.3%) or DMPA (61.5%) than men [IUDs (53.4%) or DMPA (40.2%)]. Those who in the younger age group (18-40 years old), had younger partners (18-40 years old), had education beyond a high school diploma and had no history of unwanted pregnancy (58%) were less likely to use LARC.
Conclusions: Men and women are familiar with LARC (Long-acting reversible contraception) methods, but few believe that these methods are reliable. Demonstration of the performance of long-term methods by health personnel will increase the belief and trust of women and men in longer-lasting ways of contraception.
Research Article
Rural America and Coronavirus Epidemic: Challenges and Solutions
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0040, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8200
ABSTRACT: There are emerging concerns about the preparedness of rural communities in the United States in the face of the 2019 novel coronavirus (called SARS-CoV-2, causing the disease COVID-19) considering the existing disparities across the social determinants of health between rural and urban Americans. Taking into account the current exponential rate of spread of the coronavirus, this article critically examines the risk facing the 60 million Americans living in rural areas, discusses possible solutions pertaining to rural COVID-19 prevention, and examines measures to consider to prepare for this epidemic before it reaches rural areas.
Research Article
Investigating the Predictive Role of Personality Traits on Parenting Styles in Couples of 6-12 Years Children
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0041, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8215
ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the predictive role of parental personality traits on parenting styles.
Methods: Using a systematic sampling method, a total number of 617 couples with 6-12 years old child living in northeastern Iran, were recruited. The data were collected via the Robinson Parenting Styles & Dimensions Questionnaire, Goldberg’s Big-Five Personality Inventory, and a socio-demographic form.
Results: Results indicated that (a) in mothers and fathers with increasing the personality traits such as emotional stability, and openness to experience, authoritarianism was decreased and authoritativeness was increased, (b) when mothers and fathers have more conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience, permissiveness was decreased, (c) when fathers have more extraversion, and conscientiousness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness were increased respectively,(d) in mothers with agreeableness and conscientiousness, authoritativeness was shown,(e) in mothers with increasing openness to experience, permissiveness was decreased.
Conclusions: This study indicated mother–father differences in personality traits leads to a different typology of parenting styles for their children. Hence, the assessment of parenting styles should be an important focus for evaluation in parents with different personality traits and vice versa, when parental personality traits are investigated, attention to parenting styles should be essential.
Research Article
Death, Dying, and End-of-Life Care in the US and the Netherlands: A Scoping Review
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0042, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8218
ABSTRACT: Introduction: The aim of End of Life (EOL)-care in any setting is to improve the quality of life of patients and families through medical or non-medical interventions. The study aims at identifying gaps in the literature produced on the topic and informs areas for future research in the field.
Objective: To identify articles that discuss death and dying, with the elderly > = 70, living at home, or in nursing homes, in assisted living, or community centres, in hospice or palliative care, in hospitals or emergency care.
Methods: A scoping review of studies in the U. S. and in the Netherlands. Using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the selected studies were analysed and categorized by themes, and then summarized based on positive, negative and ambiguous views on death discussions at all four (4) levels of discussion.
Results: From a total of one hundred and fifty-nine studies, twenty-five studies passed the selection criteria. Twenty-one were for the U. S., and four were for the Netherlands. The selected studies were analysed and categorized by themes.
Conclusion: The review pointed to a dearth of material that measured the outcome of discussions on the subject of death and dying with the elderly. Future studies could consider discussions on death and dying from the perspective of patients’ anxiety and distress, instead of concerns over financial support, religious and ethnic issues, ethical and legal parameters, and extra medical training.
Research Article
A Legal Approach to Winning the ‘Wash’ War in Nigeria
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0043, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8237
ABSTRACT: Open defecation has continued to pose serious health and environmental challenges globally. This practice affects almost 1 billion people worldwide and is said to contribute significantly to an estimated 842,000 deaths resulting from sanitation related diseases. A survey conducted by UNICEF ranks Nigeria as the African country with the highest population practicing open defecation and the second next to India globally. To tackle this and to prevent an environmental and health crisis, a state of emergency was declared in the water supply, sanitation and hygiene services (WASH) sector that led to the signing of an executive order to end open defecation by 2025. The objective is to eliminate open defecation and also ensure that SDG 6 is achieved especially in the rural areas. This paper posits that achieving an open defecation free status has and still remains a primary target for the government in Nigeria at all levels and the machinery of law be deployed as a viable tool to achieve this target. It submits that for this target to be met, there is the need to recognize the right to sanitation as one of the key ways to address sanitation issues especially open defecation. Articulating this right in a way that respects equity, human rights and environmental sustainability will effectively aid in the realization of the goal of ending open defecation by 2025.
Research Article
Industrial Emissions and Asthma Prevalence
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0046, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8288
ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of asthma is multifactorial and not completely understood; however, it is considered a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the airways and has a clinical development of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough. The prevalence of asthma has increased drastically during the past few decades. Urban air pollution from industrial emissions has been implicated as one of the major factors responsible for this increase. The objective of this paper was to analyze the impact of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon dioxide (CO2) on the overall prevalence of asthma for adults and children. The statistical analysis was conducted using SAS statistical software to determine multiple comparison tests for asthma prevalence among years, ages, ethnicities, and gender, and emissions of SO2, NOx, and CO2 among regions and years. Moreover, SAS was utilized to estimate fully parametric regression models for emission density on total asthma prevalence, child asthma, and adult asthma. In our investigation of asthma prevalence, blacks, females, and children were found to have the highest incidence of asthma. Industrial emissions of SO2, NOx, and CO2 were analyzed, and CO2 had the largest emissions, followed by SO2, and lastly NOx. NOx had the highest correlation with asthma prevalence in child and adult asthma; however, when the influence of SO2, NOx, and CO2 on the overall asthma rate was investigated, CO2 showed the highest correlation. Furthermore, children exposed to SO2, NOx, and CO2 were found to have an increased risk of asthma when compared to adults. This adds to evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with asthma and that more needs to be done to decrease industrial air pollution.
Review Article
Can Aerosols and Wastewater be Considered as Potential Transmissional Sources of COVID-19 to Humans?
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0047, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8324
ABSTRACT: In view of the current situation regarding the COVID-19 disease, recently, published studies have proved the higher aerosol and surface stability of COVID-19. This virus, can survive long time on wastewater and aerosol. Therefore, its transmission via contaminated waste surfaces and airborne transmission through aerosols can occur besides close-distance contacts. This article discusses the potential presence of the COVID-19 pandemic on aerosol, wastewater and sewage sludge. This article highlights the need for health protection, which should be considered to curb the rapid spread of COVID‐19. An eventual development of new specific techniques would be of great interest for controlling the environmental dissemination of these viruses in the current and eventual future outbreaks. Finally, levels of infectious virus in poor countries like Africa could be increase, due to lack of wastewater treatment. So, it is clear that to limit the transmission of COVID-19, a high disinfection methods and sustainable international collaborative work are required. Meanwhile, further research is important to develop new strategies to limit the transmission of COVID-19 and to avoid a serious second wave of the pandemic or even third waves of COVID-19 infections.
Research Article
Mindfulness Meditation as a Complementary Health Therapy: A Useful Import into Africa?
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0048, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8328
ABSTRACT: Mindfulness meditation, a very common contemplative practice used to attain a conscious state of awareness, acceptance, openness and non-reactivity, was first modified in 1979 into a complementary health therapeutic practice. This practice has, since, gained the attention of scholars globally, with the greatest surge in interest seen in the last two decades. However, in Africa, research output on the psychological construct is very limited and certified trainers of the practice are almost non-existent despite the fact that the practice has been shown to relieve stress, a factor whose level is high in the continent, and has been associated with many common disease, illnesses and other negative outcomes. There is, therefore, an overwhelming need to draw public attention towards the practice and what it can offer African healthcare systems. However, this paper takes a neutral tone while creating this needed awareness, acting just as a guide towards unravelling the complexities of the practice and not as an advocacy piece promoting its implementation in healthcare systems across Africa. It achieves this aim by discussing the major reported positive and negative physiological effects of the practice; its application in the therapy of some common physical and mental disease/illness conditions; its benefits to healthcare workers and students, and informal caregivers; its limitations; the popular criticisms levelled against it; and factors in support and against its incorporation into African healthcare systems. The discourse is concluded with recommendation of strategies for refining the practice to suit the African healthcare scene.
Research Article
The Relationship between Bullying, Sexual Violence and Substance Use among Adolescents in the United States: Cross-sectional Study
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0049, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8329
ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study explored the relationship between bullying, sexual violence and substance use among adolescents.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of 14,765 adolescents using the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) survey was conducted. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, with substance use as the outcome and bullying and sexual violence as explanatory variables in separate models.
Results: The odds of substance in bisexual adolescence was twice as heterosexuals [AOR: 2.00; 95%CI: 1.26-3.22]. Adolescents who experienced electronic bullying had 67% higher odds of substance use than those who did not experience electronic bullying [AOR: 1.67; 95%CI: 1.09-2.55]. Also, adolescents who had experienced sexual violence were had higher odds of reporting substance use than those who had not experienced sexual violence [AOR: 1.68; 95%CI: 1.15-2.45]. Additionally, those who had experienced either school bullying or electronic bullying reported higher rates of sexual violence than those who had not experienced any bullying.
Conclusion: We found a strong association between bullying, sexual violence, and substance use. A multifaceted approach is needed to resolve these problems effectively.
Research Article
The COVID-19 Epidemic in Rural U.S. Counties
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0050, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8331
ABSTRACT: Having first reached epidemic proportions in coastal metropolitan areas, COVID-19 has spread around the country. Reported case rates vary across counties from zero to 126 per thousand population (around a state prison in the rural county of Trousdale, Tennessee). Overall, rural counties are underrepresented relative to their share of the population, but a growing proportion of all daily cases and deaths have been reported in rural counties. This analysis uses daily reports for all counties to present the trends and distribution of COVID-19 cases and deaths in rural counties, from late March to May 21, 2020. I describe the relationship between population density and case rates in rural and non-rural counties. Then I focus on noteworthy outbreaks linked to prisons, meat and poultry plants, and nursing homes, many of which are linked to high concentrations of Hispanic, American Indian, and Black populations. The growing epidemic in rural counties is apparently driven by outbreaks concentrated in these institutional settings, which are conducive to transmission. The impact of the epidemic in rural areas may be heightened due to their weaker health infrastructure and more vulnerable populations, especially due to age, socioeconomic status, and health conditions. As a result, the epidemic may contribute to the ongoing decline of health, economic, and social conditions in rural areas.
Research Article
Assessment of Individual and Organizational Characteristics on Job Satisfaction Level: An Empirical Analysis
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0052, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8370
ABSTRACT: For most people, working is essential in order to earn the economic income that is required to sustain one’s life. Within this framework, the research has been conducted on the meaning of work, its importance, and its benefits for the worker. An important part of existing research are investigations into “job satisfaction,” which expresses whether people are happy and fulfilled in their work.
This research adds to that literature as the authors have researched job satisfaction levels of working individuals to discover important variables that affect job satisfaction. The research was conducted in 2018 with 217 professional staff working in the Anatolian part of Istanbul. In this research, both a “Personal Information Form” and “Job Satisfaction Scale” were used.
Editorial
Burnout among Physicians and Nurses during COVID-19 Pandemic
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0055, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8447
ABSTRACT: Health professionals treating COVID-19 patients have been reported to suffer extreme stress, which can lead to burnout and a reduced capacity to continue work. Physicians and nurses are directly at risk when performing the treatment and care of COVID-19 patients and therefore experience intense stress. This paper highlights the individual, organizational, and social effects of burnout among physicians and nurses due to COVID-19. Moreover, evidence based interventions were discussed to promote a healthy workplace, and to prevent burnout among health professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Research Article
Bacteriological Assessment of Hospital Air and Selected Surfaces in Three Referral Hospitals in Makurdi Middle Belt Nigeria
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0056, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8454
ABSTRACT: Hospital environment needs more attention because of the influx of people into the environment for medical checkup and other services. This study unveils the incidence of bacteria isolated from air and selected surfaces in three referral hospitals (City hospital, Federal Medical Centre, Wadata and Saint Theresa Hospital) in Makurdi Middle Belt Nigeria. Fifty (50) bacteria were isolated; hospital air (26%), bed rails (16%), door knobs (2%), floor (4%), nurse table top (10%), operation table (4%), sink (18%), stretchers (2%) and toilet seat (12%). In City Hospital, the bacteria isolated include Escherichia coli (6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2%), Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus spp (2%), from Federal Medical Centre, bacteria isolated were Klebsiella spp (10%), Staphylococcus aureus (4%), Staphylococcus spp (8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%) and E. coli (6%). In STH, bacteria isolated include E. coli (8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4%), Staphylococcus spp (8%) and Staphylococcus aureus (14%). The invitro antibiotics susceptibility pattern shows that Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed highest resistant to the antibiotics while Klebsiella spp was susceptible to majority of the antibiotics but resistant to cloxacillin and erythromycin. The study reveals Klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus and other Staphylococcus spp as bacteria commonly associated with hospital environment. This study affirms the presence of resistant bacteria strains and highlighted world-wide problem of hospital borne infections as it concerns the study area and population. This report will create awareness and be a good guide to health care workers, patients and the public about the likeliness of contracting nosocomial infection and how to treat such infection. Major recommendations offered suggests that, healthcare workers should be more careful in carrying out their duty to avoid chance of being infected in the course of their work. Also, the in-vitro antibiotics susceptibility testing on the bacterial pathogens in the study will assist the clinicians in making improvement on the management of nosocomial infections.
Research Article
Social Distancing Practices of Residents in a Philippine Region with Low Risk of COVID-19 Infection
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0057, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8455
ABSTRACT: While scholars and authorities have come to extol the effectiveness of social distancing practices (SDPs) in curbing the exponential growth of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, it is interesting to know how people practice them in the real situation. Thus, the overall objective of this paper is to describe the SDPs of residents in a Philippine region with a low risk of COVID-19 infection. Following the descriptive research design, it employed an online survey method and qualitative content analysis. The result showed that the residents generally follow a combination of different SDPs. They practice the recommended distance; express verbal cues to remind others; convey implied signals to motion others; select time to perform errands; choose places to perform errands; exercise metacognitive skills; greet without physical contact; prefer virtual activities; avoid touching objects; use objects of third party; utilize protective items; and stay out of the external environment. It is suggested that the multidimensional impacts of these SDPs should be further explored considering the ongoing COVID-19 crisis.
Editorial
Review of the New Zealand’s COVID-19 Elimination Plan and the Mental Health Fall out on Vulnerable Groups
European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 2020, 4(2), em0058, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejeph/8456
ABSTRACT: Around the time when several countries battle with COVID-19 pandemic, the New Zealand implemented an elimination strategy- a headway   that successfully eliminated the novel SARS-CoV-2 from   Aotearoa/ New Zealand. A review of the elimination plan shows an extended and   strict restrictions on social contact   that could cause mental health fall out particularly among the vulnerable groups such as the aged, prisoners, and people with preexisting mental health issues. For a proactive action against these after-lockdown possibilities, surveillance of the risk factors among the vulnerable groups, deliberate interventional psychiatric and psychological care, and investment in mental health personnel   training should be  first point of action. Hence, this paper aims at drawing attention to these needed  response.